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NCERT Class 9 Civics Chapter 3 Extra Questions and Answers Constitutional Design
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Very Short Answer Type Questions [1 Mark]
What is known as the supreme law of the country?
The constitution of the country is known as the supreme law of the country.
What does constitution include?
The constitution includes the rights of citizens, the powers of the government and how the government should function.
Who was Nelson Mandela? ‘
Nelson Mandela was the leader of African National Congress (ANC). He was imprisoned for 28 years in South Africa’a most dreaded prison called Robben Island.
Why was Nelson Mandela imprisoned?
He was imprisoned for opposing the apartheid regime.
What does ‘apartheid’ mean?
Apartheid was the policy of racial discrimination and ill-treatment of the blacks by the white regime of South Africa based on the colour of their skin.
Who were called the blacks in south Africa?
The natives of South Africa are black in colour, they make up for about three-fourth of the population and are called blacks. .
Which group of people in South Africa were classified as coloured?
People of mixed races were classified as ‘coloured’.
For whom was apartheid system particularly oppressive?
Apartheid system was oppressive for the blacks. They were forbidden from living in white areas.
With what condition blacks were permitted to work in white areas?
If they had a permit than only blacks were permitted to work in white areas.
What does segregation mean in South Africa?
Segregation means a practice when trains, buses, taxis, hotels, hospitals, schools and colleges, libraries, cinema halls, theatres, beaches, swimming pools were all separate for the whites and the blacks in South Africa.
What treatment was given to the blacks?
The blacks could not even visit the churches where the whites worshipped and could not form associations or protest against the terrible treatment meted out to them.
Since when the blacks, coloured and the Indians fought against the apartheid system and how?
Since 1950 the blacks, coloured and the Indians fought against the apartheid system by launching
protest marches and strikes.
What was African National Congress (ANC)?
It was the umbrella organisation that led the struggle against the policies of segregation.
What was the role of the sensitive Whites in ANC?
Many sensitive whites joined the African National Congress to oppose apartheid and played a leading role in the struggle.
How white racists continued their apartheid despite protests?
The white racists continued apartheid by detaining, torturing and killing thousands of blacks and coloured people.
How did apartheid end in South Africa?
As protests and struggles against apartheid increased the government realised that they could no longer keep the blacks under their rule through repression. Finally, at midnight of 26th April 1994, South Africa got freedom from apartheid.
What policies were changed by the white regime in South Africa.
The policies that changed were:
- Discriminatory’ laws were repealed.
- Ban on political parties and restrictions on media were lifted. After 28 years, Nelson Mandela walked out free from jail.
What is the appeal made by the blacks to their follow blacks after being democratic?
Blacks appealed to the fellow blacks that they forgive the whites for the atrocities they had committed while in power. • ‘
On what basis they wanted to build a new nation?
They wanted to build a new nation based on equality of all races and men and women, on democratic values, social justice and human rights.
Who formed the constitution of neo-democratic South Africa?
The party that ruled through oppression and brutal killings and the party that led the freedom struggle sat together to draw up a common constitution.
When was the constitution of South Africa completed?
After two years of discussion and debate the constitution makers came out with one of the finest . constitutions the world had seen.
Mention a distinguished feature of newly formed South African constitution.
The constitution of South Africa provides the most extensive rights to its citizens available in any country.
What was the major challenge prevailing in the South African society after being democratic?
In the new democracy, the oppressor and the oppressed were planning to live together as equals. It was difficult for them to trust each other.
What were the safeguards wished by the black majority?
They wanted that there must not be any compromise regarding democratic principles of majority rule. The wanted substantial social and economic rights.
What were the fears prevailing among the whites?
The white minority had a fear of losing their privileges and property. They wanted to secure them.
What compromise was made by white minority in South Africa?
The whites agreed to the principle of majority rule and that of one person one vote. They also agreed to accept some basic rights for the poor and the workers.
What compromise was made by black majority in South Africa?
They agreed that the majority rule would not be absolute. They agreed that the majority would not take away the property of the whites.
With which rules trust was built between blacks and whites in South Africa?
The rules which determined what the elected governments are empowered to do and what they cannot do. Finally, they decided the rights of the citizen.
What was the condition of basic rules made by the South Africans?
The basic rules will be supreme, that no government will be able to ignore them.
What is the title of the autobiography of Nelson Mandela?
The title of the autobiography of Nelson Mandela is the The Long Walk to Freedom.
How is constitution making not unique to South Africa?
This is not unique to South Africa because like other countries it also has a diverse group of people having differences of opinions and interests.
Which groups need a constitution?
Other than government, associations also need a constitution like clubs, cooperative societies or political parties, etc.
What is a constitution?
A constitution is the supreme law of the country in written form accepted by all the people living together in the country.
Why is constitution considered as a supreme law?
It is the supreme law as it determines the relationship among people living in a territory (called citizens) and the relationship between the people and government.
Who was the Education Minister in the first union cabinet?
Abul Kalam Azad was the Education Minister.
Who was the Finance Minister in the first union cabinet?
What was the state of the princely states when the British left India?
The British had left it to the rulers of the princely states to decide whether they wanted to be with India or with Pakistan or remain independent.
Who integrated the Indian princely states? How many princely states were there?
Sardar Patel integrated the 562 princely states of India.
What advantages did Indian constitution makers have unlike South Africa? .
The advantage was that they did not have to create a consensus about what a democratic India should look like as it was evolved mostly during freedom struggle.
Who firstly drafted the constitution for India?
In 1928, Motilal Nehru and eight other Congress leaders drafted a constitution for India.
What resolution was made in 1931, Karachi session?
In 1931, at the Karachi session of the Indian National Congress, worked on how independent India’s constitution should look like.
What was the benefit of years of thinking and deliberations on the framework of constitution?
Many years of thinking and deliberation made leaders accept the ideas of the countries but on
terms which are suitable for our country.
What was Constituent Assembly?
The drafting of the constitution by an assembly of elected representatives is called Constituent Assembly.
How was Constituent Assembly formed?
Constituent Assembly was formed by the elections held in July 1946.
When was the first meeting of Constituent Assembly held?
The first meeting was held in December 1946.
How many members did the Constituent Assembly have?
The Constituent Assembly that whole the Indian constitution had 299 members.
When was the constitutional work completed and when did the constitution come into force?
The assembly adopted the constitution on 26th November 1949. It come into force on January 1950.
To mark this day we celebrate 26th January as Republic Day every year.
Why did the constitution come into effect on 26th January 1950?
The constitution came into effect on 26lh January 1950, because the constitution makers wanted to give importance to the date 26th January as Jawaharlal Nehru declared Independence Day of India on 26th January.
What does constitution of a country reflect?
It reflects the views of its members expressing a broad consensus of its time.
Why had the countries rewritten their constitution?
Many countries had written their constitution afresh because the basic rules were not acceptable to major social groups or political parties.
What is the unusual achievement of our constitution?
The unusual achievement is that no large social group or political party has ever questioned the legitimacy of the constitution itself. ‘ ‘
Which political party dominated the assembly?
The Indian National Congress dominated the assembly. The INC led India’s freedom struggle.
How did the Constituent Assembly work?
The Constituent Assembly worked in a systematic, open and consensual manner.
What was the first task of Drafting Committee? Who was its chairman?
The Drafting Committee firstly prepared a draft of the constitution for discussion. Its chairman was Dr. B.R. Ambedkar.
Who was the President of the Constituent Assembly?
Dr. Rajendra Prasad was the Chairman of the Constituent Assembly.
How many draft amendments were considered?
More than 2000 draft amendments were considered.
How much time was taken to complete the constitution of India?
About 114 days spread over three years were taken for framing the Indian constitution.
What is a draft?
A preliminary version of a piece of writing. For instance, the first draft of the party’s manifesto.
What is a clause?
A distinct section of a document.
What are Constituent Assembly Debates?
When every document presented and every word spoken in the Constituent Assembly was recorded and preserved these referred as Constituent Assembly Debates.
Write the significance of ‘Constituent Assembly Debates’.
The Constituent Assembly Debates provide the reason behind every provision of the constitution. They are used to interpret the constitution.
Name the Indian leader who used to write for the magazine Young India in 1931.
Mahatma Gandhi used to write for the magazine Young India in 1931.
What features formed the foundation for India’s democracy?
The values that inspired and guided the freedom struggle and were then nurtured by it, formed the foundation of India’s democracy.
What is Preamble?
The constitution begins with a short statement of its basic values is called the Preamble to the constitution.
Who inspired different countries of the world to start their constitution with a Preamble?
The countries were inspired by the American constitution to start their constitution with a Preamble.
What does ‘sovereign’ mean?
It means people have the supreme right to make decisions on internal and external matters. No external power can dictate the government of India.
What does socialist in a democratic constitution mean?
It means wealth is generated socially and should be shared equally by society. Government should reduce socio-economic inequalities.
What does democratic mean?
Democratic means a form of government where people enjoy equal political rights, elect their rulers and hold them accountable.
What does a republic mean? . .
In a republic, the head of the state is an elected person and not a hereditary position.
What does liberty in the Preamble mean?
It means there is no unreasonable restrictions on the citizens in what they think how they express, how they wish to follow their thoughts in action.
What does equality mean in the constitution?
All are equal before the law. The traditional social inequalities have to be ended by the government and it should ensure equal opportunities for all.
What is constitutional amendment?
It is a change in the constitution made by the supreme legislative body in a country.
Why do we need to make amendments to our constitution?
Our constitution is a very long and detailed document. It needs to be amended regularly to keep it updated.
Short Answer Type Questions [3 Marks]
What do you know about Nelson Mandela?
- Nelson Mandela was a South African leader who was tried for treason by the white South African government.
- He along with seven others were sentenced to life imprisonment in 1964, for daring to oppose the apartheid regime in South Africa.
- He spent 28 years in Robben Island, South Africa’s most dreaded prison.
- He was released after 28 years from jail. At the midnight of 26th April 1994, South Africa
become independent and Nelson Mandela became its first President. (any three)
How did the blacks of South Africa fight against apartheid?
- Since 1950, the blacks, coloured and the Indians had started their fight against the apartheid system. They started protest marches and strikes.
- The African National Congress (ANC) led the struggle against the policies of segregation. This included workers’ unions and the Communist Party.
- They were also joined by many sensitive whites who opposed apartheid and played a leading role in this struggle. Several countries also denounced apartheid as unjust and racist.
Mention any three changes that were brought about in the constitution of South Africa after 1994.
The three changes that were bought in the constitution of South Africa were as follows.
- Discriminatory laws were repealed.
- Ban an political parties and restrictions on media were lifted.
- Nelson Mandela was released after 28 years of imprisonment.
How difficult it was for India to frame a constitution for united India after Independence?
To frame a constitution for unified India after Independence, its difficult in following manner.
- At that time the people of India were emerging form the status of subjects to that of citizens.
- The country emerged thought Partition on the basis of religion.
- It was a traumatic experience for both the people of India and Pakistan.
Which countries constitutional features inspired Indian constitution makers?
The following countries constitutional features inspired Indian constitution makers:
- Ideals of the French Revolution.
- The practice of Parliamentary democracy in Britain.
- The Bill of Rights in the US. ‘ ‘
- The Socialist Revolution in Russia. (any three)
Describe the steps taken to form the Constituent Assembly. [CBSE 2016]
How was the Indian Constituent Assembly formed? [HOTS]
The Indian Constituent Assembly was formed for the task of framing the Constitution for independent India. The elections to the Provisional Legislative Assembly were held in July 1946. The elected members of the Provisional Legislative Assembly elected the members for the Constituent Assembly through proportional representation system. There were in total 389 members in the Constituent ‘ Assembly. Later with the Partition of India into India and Pakistan, 299 members wrote the constitution. It included 70 members from princely states and nine women. 284 present members gave their assent and the Indian Constitution was passed.
Give reasons for accepting the constitution which was made by the Constituent Assembly more than 50 years ago? [HOTS]
Why is constitution of India acceptable to Indians even today? [CBSE 2014]
The reasons for acceptability of the constitution till today are as follows:
- The constitution does not reflect the views of its members alone. It expresses a broad consensus of its time.
- The Constituent Assembly represented the people of India. Since there was no universal adult franchise at that time, the Constituent Assembly could not have been chosen directly by the people. It was elected, mainly by the members of Provincial Legislatures, which ensured a fair share of all the regions of the country.
- The Constituent Assembly worked in a systematic, open and consensual manner. The nature of work done by the Constituent Assembly gave sanctity to the constitution.
Write a short note on the Drafting Committee.
- It was a committee that prepared a draft of the constitution for discussion.
- Its chairman was Dr BR Ambedkar.
- These were several rounds of thorough discussions on the draft of the constitution clause by clause.
- The members worked for 114 days spread over three years.
Later it was presented to the public to get their opinion. (any three)
What was the role of Dr BR Ambedkar in making of the constitution?
- Dr BR Ambedkar was the Chairman of the Drafting Committee.
- He played a key role in the making of the constitution He gave shape to our country of being a complete sovereign democratic republic based on universal adult franchise.
- He stressed that in politics these should be equality but in social and economic life inequalities should be removed.
What are Constituent Assembly Debates?
The proceedings of the Constituent Assembly have been recorded and preserved such as every document presented and preserved and these are known as ‘Constituent Assembly Debates’.
The three characteristics of these debates are:
- These debates provide the reason behind every provision of the constitution.
- These are used to interpret the meaning of the constitution.
- When printed, the debates constitute 12 bulky volumes.
What is the philosophy of the Indian Constitution?
The basic values have been included in the Preamble to the constitution. It contains the philosophy on which the entire constitution has been built.
- The Preamble provides a standard to examine and evaluate any law and action of government. It is the soul of the constitution.
- The Preamble mentions people as the sources of constitution.
- It states that India is a sovereign, socialist, secular and democratic republic. It provides justice, liberty, equality and fraternity for the people.
Describe how the Indian constitution has embodied the basic values into institutional arrangements?
- It is a detailed document. It needs to be amended quite regularly to keep it updated. It has
provisions to incorporate changes from time to time. These changes are called constitutional amendments.
- The constitution lays down a procedure for choosing persons to govern the country.
- It defines who will have how much power to take which decisions. It puts limits to what the government can do for providing some rights to its citizens that cannot be violated.
Long Answer Type Questions [5 Marks]
How was apartheid system practised in South Africa?
The apartheid system was practised in South Africa in the following ways:
- The system of apartheid divided the people on the basis of the colour of their skin.
- The non-whites were treated as inferiors and were deprived of their right to vote by the whites.
- They were forbidden from living in white areas.
- They could work in white areas only it they had a permission.
- Trains, buses, taxis hotels, schools, libraries, cinema halls, beaches, swimming pools were all separate for the whites and blacks.
- The blacks could not worship in the Churches where the whites worshipped.
- Blacks could not form associations or protest against the terrible treatment meted out to them.
Explain how did the white minority and the black majority agree to draw up a common constitution for South Africa. [CBSE 2013]
The white minority and the black majority agreed to draw up a common constitution for South Africa in the following ways.
- The white regime changed its repressive policies and repealed its discriminatory laws.
- Ban on political parties and restrictions on media were lifted.
- The black leaders appealed to fellow blacks to forgive the whites for the atrocities committed by them.
- There were long sessions of debates and discussions and they searched a solution to the existing problems.
- It was agreed that everyone should be a part of the solution irrespective of the differences and whatever they had done or represented in the past.
What is a constitution? Explain the role of the constitution in a country.
A constitution is a document containing the set of principles according to which a state or an organisation is supposed to be governed. The constitution reflects the philosophy on which country’s administration works and expresses the aspirations of the people for creating a good society. It serves as the rule book for the government. It specifies the powers and limitations of the government and clearly demarcates the areas of its functioning. The constitution lays down the procedures and guidelines on how the government can be formed. It states the rights and duties of the citizens and directs the government to see that basic rights of the citizens are enforced. It thus generates trust and coordination required for unity among the people. The constitution also serves as a set of ideals that our society should live by.
Why do we need a constitution?
We need a constitution for the following reasons.
- It generates a degree of trust and coordination which is necessary for different kinds of people to live together.
- The constitution specifies how the government will be constituted and what power each organ will have and who will take what decision.
- It also defines the responsibilities of these three pillars of the government i.e., legislature, executive and judiciary.
- It regulates the relationship between three organs and also with the people.
- It also tells us about the rights and duties of the citizens.
- It limits the powers of the government and tells us about the rights of the citizens.
- The Indian constitution also protects/safeguards the interests of minorities, the backward classes and weaker sections. (any five)
“The familiarity with political institutions of the colonial rule helped to develop an agreement over
the institutional design.” Justify the statement. [CBSE 2016]
The familiarity with political institutions of colonial rule helped to develop an agreement over the institutional design in the following ways.
- The British rule gave voting rights to only a few. Later Election Commission was set up and voting rights were granted to all.
- Elections were held in 1937 to Provincial Legislatures and Ministries were formed all over British India. The experience gained by Indians in the working of these institutions proved to be very useful for the country in setting up its own institutions and working in them.
- The Indian Constitution adopted many institutional details and procedures from colonial laws like the Government of India Act, 1935.
- The ideals of French Revolution, practice of Parliamentary democracy in Britain and Bill of Rights in the US inspired us to set up fundamental rights and duties.
- The political institutions of the colonial rule are not just copied. They are questioned at every
step to suit our nation’s conditions and set-up. In a way they serve as a blueprint for setting up our institutions. (any five)
Explain five major factors which contributed to the making of our constitution. [CBSE 2014]
“India emerged as independent country amidst heavy turmoil.” Justify the statement.
To make a constitution for a huge and diverse population like India was not an easy affair. The following factors contributed to the making of our constitution:
- A constitution drafted by Motilal Nehru and other Congress leaders in 1928, gave an insight of what an Indian Constitution should look like.
- The people of India were emerging from the status of subjects to that of citizens.
- The country had a traumatic experience of Partition based on religious identities. There was a need to ensure unity. It was thus necessary to frame guidelines that could give equal. representation to each section of the society.
- The rulers of the princely states were free to decide whether they wanted to merge with India or Pakistan or remain independent.
- The familiarity with the political institutions of colonial rule also played an important role in urging the leaders to develop a document containing the format on how the affairs of India would be carried on.
- The leaders were vested with the responsibility of transforming society and politics. A well-defined political model was to be adopted that suited the Indian conditions. This could only be achieved through a set of guidelines to the elected members on the governance.
- India faced the challenge of social discrimination. Principles like equality, liberty and justice irrespective of caste, class and religion were required to cope with this challenge, (any five)
What was the composition of the Constituent Assembly?
- The Constitution of India was framed by the Constituent Assembly which was constituted in 1946 under the provisions of the Cabinet Mission Plan.
- As a result of Partition of India the number of members were reduced to 299.
- It consisted of eminent persons like Pt. Jawaharlal Nehru, Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel, Maulana Abul Kalam Azad, Dr BR Ambedkar, KM Munshi, Rajagopalachari etc.
- The women members like Sarojini Naidu and G Durgabai Deshmukh played an important role.
- Each was an expert in his/her field. These great minds after a period of long discussions and debates keeping in mind the diversity and aspirations of the people of India framed the constitution.
Assess the contribution made by Constituent Assembly to form the Indian Constitution. [HOTS] The following were the contributions made by the Constituent Assembly to form the Indian Constitution.
- It reflected the broad consensus of its time, that is, its provisions were accepted by all major social groups and political parties.
- It represented the People of India. Its formation ensured a fair geographical share of the members from all regions of the country.
It accommodated the opposition in a fair way and gave opportunities to raise their concerns before arriving at a conclusion.
- It worked in a systematic and open way. First basic principles were decided and agreed upon and then the draft was prepared.
- Several rounds of long debates and discussions were held. Every document presented and word spoken was carefully recorded and preserved. This was done to keep a record for further reference.
Give a brief description about any five members of the Constituent Assembly.
The five members of the Constituent Assembly were:
- Dr Rajendra Prasad: (1884-1963)
- Born in Bihar
- President of the Constituent Assembly.
- A lawyer who played an important role in the Champaran satyagraha.
- He was the president of Congress three times.
- The first President of India (any two)
- HC Mookerjee: (1887-1956)
- Born in Bengal
Vice-President of the Constituent Assembly
- Renowned author and educationist
- Congress leader. Member of All India Christian Council and Bengal Legislative Assembly. Later Governor of West Bengal. (any two)
- Born in Bengal
- Jawaharlal Nehru (1889-1964)
- Prime minister of interim government
- Lawyer and Congress leader
- Advocated socialism, democracy and anti-imperialism
- First Prime Minister of India. (any two)
- Baldev Singh (1901-1961)
- Nominee of the Congress in the Constituent Assembly.
- Successful entrepreneur.
- Leader of Panthic Akali Party in the Punjab Assembly.
- Defence Minister in the Union Government of Jawaharlal Nehru. (any two)
- Sarojini Naidu (1879-1949)
- Member of the Constituent Assembly
- Poet, writer and political activist
- Among the for most women leaders in the Congress, Governor of Uttar Pradesh, (any two)
Explain any five major ideals enshrined in the Preamble to the Constitution. [CBSE 2014]
The following are the five major ideals enshrined in the Preamble to the Constitution of India:
- Sovereign: People of India have supreme power and authority to decide on internal and external matters concerning the country. The government cannot be dictated by any external power.
- Secular: There is no state religion of India. At the same time citizens of India are free to practise and profess any religion or faith of their choice. No government machinery can discriminate against or favour any religion or faith and its followers.
- Democratic: In India, it is the people who choose their leaders, who form the government. The government has to function according to certain basic rules ensuring maximum welfare of the people.
- Justice: Discrimination of the citizens on any ground is legally prohibited.
- Liberty: It refers to freedom on the activities of citizens of India. No unreasonable restrictions can be established on the way they think, express and follow up their thoughts in action.
Explain the importance of institutional design of the Constitution of India. [CBSE 2016]
The importance of the institutional design of the Constitution of India as follows:
- Constitution is mainly about embodying its values into institutional arrangements.
- It is a long and detailed document. Therefore, it needs to be amended quite regularly to keep it updated.
- The constitution describes the constitutional arrangements in a very legal language.
- Constitution lays down a procedure for choosing persons to govern the country. It defines who will and how much power one will have to take which decisions.
- It also puts limits to what the government can do by providing some rights to the citizens that cannot be violated.
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