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NCERT Class 9 History Chapter 2 Extra Questions and Answers Socialism in Europe and the Russian Revolution
Very Short Answer Type Questions
Who controlled economic and social powers before the 18th century in France?
The aristocracy and the church controlled the economic and social powers in France before the 18th century.
Name any two Indians who talked of the significance of the French Revolution.
Raja Rammohan Roy and Derozio talked of the significance of the French Revolution.
What were the varied responses in Europe about transformation of society?
There were some who accepted that some changes were necessary but wished to have a gradual shift while others wanted radical restructuring of the society.
Mention the type of government favoured by the liberals.
They insisted on a representative, elected parliamentary government, subject to laws interpreted by a well-trained judiciary that was independent of rulers and officials,
How can you say that the ‘liberals’ were not ‘democrats’? [HOTS]
The liberals were not democrats because they did not believe in universal adult franchise and felt that only men of property should have a right to vote. They were against voting rights to women.
Mention one significant view of the radicals.
Radicals wanted a nation in which the government was based on the majority of a country’s population.
When did the conservatives become receptive to the need of change?
After the French Revolution, the conservatives became receptive to some kind of change.
Which group of ideology was against any kind of political or social change earlier in the 18th century?
The conservatives, in the early 18th century were against any kind of political and social change.
What were the ideas of ‘conservatives’ regarding social change in the 19th century?
The conservatives believed that some change was required in the society but the changes should be slow.
What kind of developments took place as a result of new political trends in Europe?
As a result of new political trends in Europe industrial revolution occurred, new cities came up and railways expanded.
List the major change during industrialisation.
Men, women and children were brought to factories during industrialisation.
What were the firm beliefs of the liberals?
The liberals firmly believed in the value of individual effort, labour and enterprise.
How would society develop according to the liberals?
Liberals believed that societies would develop if freedom of individuals was ensured, if poor could labour, and those with capital could operate without restraint.
Who were the people that wanted to put an immediate end to the existing governments in Europe in 1815?
Some nationalists, liberals and radicals who became revolutionaries wanted to put an immediate end to the existing governments in Europe in 1815.
What were nationalists views about revolutions?
The nationalists viewed that revolutions would create nations where all citizens would enjoy equal rights.
Who was responsible for achieving equal rights in Italy?
An Italian nationalist, Giuseppe Mazzini, conspired with others to achieve equal rights to all citizens in Italy after 1815.
Why were the socialists against private property?
The socialists were against private property because individuals who owned property were concerned only about their personal gains rather than social welfare.
What were the two different visions of the socialists for future?
Some socialists like Robert Owen believed in the idea of cooperatives and build cooperative community called New Harmony in Indiana. Others like Louis Blanc felt that it could not be achieved through individual initiative. Governments should encourage cooperatives.
What did Karl Marx want workers to overthrow? Why?
Karl Marx wanted the workers to overthrow capitalism and free themselves from capitalist exploitation.
Which international body was formed in Europe in the 19th century to coordinate the efforts of socialists all over Europe?
An international body was formed in Paris in 1889, to coordinate the efforts of socialists all over Europe. It was called the Second International.
Name the socialist parties formed in Britain and France in 1905.
Labour Party was formed in Britain by socialists and trade unionists. A Socialist Party was also formed in France.
Who was the ruler of Russia and its empire in 1914?
The ruler of Russia and its empire was Tsar Nicholas II.
Mention the regions included in Russian empire.
The Russian empire included territory around Moscow and current-day Finland, Latvia, Lithuania, Estonia, parts of Poland, Ukraine and Belarus. It also comprised some of today’s Central Asian states.
Name the religions practised in the Russian empire.
The religions in the Russian empire included Russian Orthodox Christianity’, Catholics, Protestants, Muslims and Buddhists.
Which was the major occupation of Russian people at the beginning of twentieth century?
Agriculture was the occupation of about 85 per cent of the Russians at this time.
Name the prominent industrial areas in the Russian empire.
St Petersburg and Moscow were the prominent industrial areas.
Name any two factors that led to the setting up of industries in Russia by the end of the 19th century.
The expansion of Russian railway network and increase in foreign investment led to the setting up of industries in Russia by the end of the 19th century.
What was the commune/mir?
The commune/mir was a cooperative community of people in Russia living together and sharing possessions and responsibilities.
Mention the role of Socialist Revolutionary Party. .
The Socialist Revolutionary Party struggled for peasants’ rights and demanded that land belonging to nobles be transferred to peasants.
On what point did the Social Democrats and Socialist Revolutionaries differ with each other? [HOTS]
The socialists felt that peasants were not a united group. Some were poor while others were rich, some worked as labourers while others were capitalists.
How was the Socialist Revolutionary Party divided over the strategy of organisation?
One group under Lenin felt that the party should be disciplined and number and quality of members should be maintained. Others wanted the party to be open to all.
Which communities demanded constitution during 1905 Revolution? Who supported them?
Liberals, Social Democrats and Socialist Revolutionaries with peasants and workers demanded constitution. Nationalists and jadidists supported them.
Who were jadidists?
The jadidists were the Muslim reformers within the Russian empire. They wanted modernised Islam to lead their societies.
What was Bloody Sunday?
Bloody Sunday was an incident when a workers procession led by Father Gapon was attacked by the police and at Winter Palace Cossacks killing hundreds.
What do you mean by Union of Unions?
During the 1905 revolution, lawyers, doctors, engineers and other middle class workers established a union of unions and demanded a constituent assembly.
Why did the Tsar dismiss the first Duma within 75 days of its election?
The Tsar dismissed the first Duma within 75 days of its election because the Tsar did not want any reduction in his power and anyone to question his authority.
Between which two European alliances First World War broke out?
The two European alliances were Germany, Austria and Turkey and France, Britain and Russia.
Give one instance of high anti-German sentiments in Russia.
Renaming of St Petersburg a German name, as Petrograd showed the high anti-German sentiments.
What made autocracy unpopular in Russia?
The German origin of the Tsarina Alexandra and advisers like the monk Rasputin made the autocracy unpopular in Russia.
What were the divisions in the layout of the Petrograd city?
Workers’ quarter and factories were located on the right bank of River Neva whereas on the left bank fashionable area, the Winter Palace and official building were located.
Which division faced the food shortages in February 1917?
The workers’ quarters was affected deeply with the food shortages in February.
To which the Tsar’s desire of Parliamentarians were opposed? Why?
Parliamentarians were opposed to Tsar’s desire to dissolve the Duma to preserve the elected government.
Why did a lockout take place at a factory on the right bank of the River Neva on 22 February, 1917?
A lockout took place at a factory on the right bank of the River Neva on 22nd February, 1917 in favour of the workers at the left bank of the river. They had a bad time due to severe winter and food shortages.
Which events took place after the Tsar abdicated on 2nd March?
The events that took place after the abdication of Tsar on 2nd March 1917 were:
(a) Forming of the Provisional Government.
(b) Decision to set up a constituent assembly.
Who formed the Provisional Government to run the country?
Soviet and the Duma leaders formed a Provincial Government to run the country.
Who were influential in the Provisional Government?
Army officials, landowners and industrialists were influential in the Provisional Government.
What were Lenin’s ‘April Theses’?
The three demands of Vladimir Lenin after his return to Russia in April 1917 were called Lenin’s April Theses’.
Why were most of the Bolshevik Party members initially surprised by ‘April Theses’?
Most of the Bolshevik Party members were surprised by the April Thesis’ because of the following reasons.
(a) They wanted continuation of World War I.
(b) They thought that time was not ripe for a socialist revolution.
(c) Government needed to be supported at this time.
What do you mean by nationalisation of banks and industries?
This meant that the ownership and management of banks and industries held by the government.
Name the ship that protected the Winter Palace during the October Revolution in 1917 in Russia.
Aurora protected the Winter Palace during the October Revolution in 1917 in Russia.
What was Budeonovka?
Budeonovka was the Soviet hat that was chosen to assert change in army uniform.
What was the Bolshevik Party renamed after October Revolution?
Bolshevik Party was renamed the Russian Communist Party after the October Revolution.
What was Cheka?
Cheka was the secret police set up by the Bolsheviks to clamp down on its critics.
To whom did the ‘reds’, ‘greens’ and ‘whites’ refer to during the Civil War in Russia?
The ‘reds’ were the Bolsheviks
The ‘greens’ were the Socialist Revolutionaries
The ‘whites’ were the pro-Tsarists.
Name the countries that supported the Socialist Revolutionaries and the pro-Tsarists in Russia.
France, America, Britain and Japan supported the Socialist Revolutionaries and pro-Tsarists in Russia.
What were Stalin’s views about rich peasants and traders?
Stalin viewed that rich peasants and traders held stocks of foodgrains hoping for higher prices in future.
Who were the ‘Kulaks’?
Kulakas were the rich peasants who held most of the land in Russia.
What was the problem associated with small-sized farms in Russia? .
Production in the small-sized farms declined as modern farming cannot be used.
Short Answer Type Questions
Liberals were not Democrats. Explain. [CBSE 2016]
Why do we say that liberals could not be called ‘democrats’?
The liberals could not be called democrats because even though they argued for a representative, elected parliamentary government, subject to laws interpreted by a well-trained judiciary that was independent of rulers and officials, they did not believe in universal adult franchise and also did not want the voting rights for women. They felt right to vote should only be given to the propertied men.
Describe the views of radicals. [CBSE 2014]
The following were the viewpoints of the radicals.
(a) Radicals wanted a nation in which government was based on the majority of a country’s population.
(b) Many supported women’s suffragette movements.
(c) They opposed the privileges of great landowners and wealthy factory owners. Though they favoured private property, they disliked concentration of property in the hands of a few.
What were the viewpoints of the conservatives?
The conservatives had the following viewpoints.
(a) In the beginning of the eighteenth century, they were opposed to the idea of change.
(b) Later in the nineteenth century, they accepted that some change was inevitable.
(c) At the same time they believed that the past had to be respected and change had to be brought about through a slow process.
How should society, according to liberals and radicals, develop?
Liberals and radicals were often property owners and employers. They acquired wealth through industrial ventures and trade. They believed that society could develop in the following ways.
(a) They strongly believed that if the workforce is healthy and educated, more profits could be earned.
(b) They firmly believed in valuing individual efforts, labour and enterprise.
(c) They believed that the society would develop if poor could work and freedom of all individuals is ensured.
(d) For this, they wanted investment and trade to be carried out without restrictions.
Why were socialists against private property and saw it as the root of all social ills? [HOTS]
To what changes did the socialists campaign for?
Explain the Socialist view on private property.
The socialists were against private property because of the following reasons.
(a) They believed that private property was the root cause of all social evils.
(b) Individuals who owned property, did provide employment but at the same they are much more concerned with personal gains.
(c) They did not bother about the welfare of the people. .
(d) Socialists also felt that if society controlled property, more attention would be paid to collective social interests and concentration of wealth in the hands of a few could be restricted.
What was the basic principle of the Marxist theory?
Marx believed that the condition of workers could not improve as long as private capitalists had profit motive. Workers had to overthrow capitalism and the rule of private property. Workers must construct a radically socialist society where all property was socially controlled. This would be a communist society, the natural society of the future.
Explain how workers were divided in social groups. [CBSE 2013]
The workers were divided in social groups in Russia in the following ways.
(a) Some workers were closely linked to their villages while others settled in the cities permanently,
(b) The division among the workers was on the basis of skills they possessed. Metalworkers were on the high level as their work required training.
(c) Apart from males, women also formed a considerable working force in the factories though they were paid less than the males.
Discuss the relationship between peasants and nobles in Russia during early 19th century.
Peasants cultivated most of the land that was owned by the nobility, the crown and the Orthodox Church. Nobility had no respect except in few cases. Peasants demanded the land of the nobles to be distributed to them. Often they refused to pay rent and even murdered landlords. Such events were on rise all over Russia.
How did Social Democrats disagree with Socialist Revolutionaries? ICBSE 2016]
Social Democrats disagreed with Socialist Revolutionaries in the following ways.
(a) Social Democrats believed workers to be the mainforce of revolution whereas Socialist Revolutionaries argued that peasants would be the revolutionary class.
(b) Social Democrats wanted benefits for the workers and control on the factors of production. Socialist Revolutionaries on the other hand demanded land to the peasants.
(c) Social Democrats felt that peasants were not a united group as they were rich and poor and many owned large tracts of land. Socialist Revolutionaries favoured peasants as natural socialists.
What was the difference between Bolshevik and Menshevik group. [CBSE 2016]
Who were the Bolsheviks and Mensheviks?
The Bolsheviks were the majority group led by Vladimir Lenin who thought that in a repressive society like Tsarist Russia, the party should be disciplined and control the number and quality of its members. They were the group who conducted the Russian Revolution.
Mensheviks, on the other hand, were the minority group who thought that the party should be open to all. They did not believe in revolution but wanted to bring changes through democratic means.
What made the Tsar the ‘autocrat of all the Russians’? Describe the steps he took just before the Russian Revolution.
Russia followed autocracy. The Tsar was not subject to Parliament. This made the Tsar the autocrat of all Russia. The liberals in Russia campaigned to end this state of affairs.
The following steps were taken by the Tsar just before the Russian Revolution to ascertain his authority.
(a) All political parties were declared illegal in Russia.
(b) Every possible effort was taken to crush the rebellion and revolution against the Tsar.
Why is Tsarist Russia termed as a repressive society?
Tsarist Russia is termed as a repressive society because of the following reasons.
(a) Large tracts of land were owned by nobility, crown and the Orthodox Church. Nobles enjoyed privileges at the cost of the common people.
(b) Political parties were illegal. No one could raise voice against the aristocratic class.
(c) Tsar enjoyed unconditional power without being responsible to any one.
Describe the incident known as ‘Bloody Sunday’.
The following events gave way to the incident known as Bloody Sunday.
(a) The dismissal of four members of the Assembly of Russian Workers called for an industrial action by the workers.
(b) Over 110,000 workers in St Petersburg went on strike in 1905, demanding a reduction in the working day to eight hours, an increase in wages and improvement in working conditions.
(c) When this procession led by father Gapon reached the Winter Palace it was attacked by the police and the Cossacks. Hundreds of the workers were killed and many hundreds wounded. This incident came to be known as Bloody Sunday. It started a series of events that later resulted in the 1905 Revolution.
How did the destruction of Russian industries after the First World War become one of the causes of resentment of people?
What effects did the First World War have on industry of Russia?
The First World War had a devastating impact on industries. Russia had few industries and on that supplies of industrial goods were cut off due to war. Industrial equipments began to disintegrate rapidly, railway lines began to break down. All the able-bodied men were engaged in war which resulted in the shutdown of the small workshops. Grains were supplied to the army engaged in war. This created food shortages. In cities, bread and flour became scarce. Riots at the bread shops became a common scene in Russia.
Discuss Lenin’s ‘April Theses’. [CBSE 2016]
What were the demands referred in Lenin’s ‘April Theses’?
The following were the demands referred to in Lenin’s April Theses’.
(a) World War I should be brought to an end.
(b) Land should be transferred to the peasants.
(c) Banks should be nationalised.
What were the effects of the February Revolution in Russia?
Ans. The following were the effects of the February Revolution in Russia.
(a) The Tsar abdicated and monarchy was brought down.
(b) The Soviet leaders and Duma leaders formed a Provisional Government to run the country.
(c) Russia’s future would be decided by a constituent assembly, elected on the basis of universal adult suffrage.
Why did the Kerenskii government become unpopular in Russia? [HOTS]
The Kerenskii government became unpopular in Russia because of the following reasons.
(a) He tried to suppress the workers’ movement. Peasants in the countryside had started demanding redistribution of land.
(b) The Bolshevik demonstrators was suppressed. Many of them had to go into hiding.
(c) Kerenskii was suspected of setting up a dictatorship and Lenin persuaded the Petrograd Soviet and Bolshevik Party to agree to a socialist seizure of power.
(d) Sensing the trouble to be caused by the revolutionaries he left the city to summon troops.
Mention any two changes introduced by Stalin in the Russian economy. How did Stalin deal with the critics?
The following changes were introduced by Stalin.
(a) Elimination of kulaks, the well-to-do farmers. The land from the kulaks was taken and state-controlled farms were established.
(b) Collectivisation of land i.e., Stalin’s collectivisation programme was followed. All peasants had to cultivate collective farms (Kolkohz) and the profit was shared by the peasants working on the land.
There were peasants’ resistances which Stalin dealt with severely. The critics were charged with conspiracy against socialism. Many were deported and exiled and forced into prisons or labour camps. Many were forced to make false statements under torture and were later executed.
Why was the decision to collectivise farms taken?
Russia was facing acute shortages of grain supplies. The price at which grains must be sold was fixed by the government. Still the peasants refused to sell their grains to the government. Stalin thought that rich peasants and traders in the countryside were holding stocks in the hope of higher prices. This created a shortage. Therefore, the decision to collectivise farms was taken. It was felt that small size farms were not as productive as they could not be modernised which caused the shortage. Modern farming was the need of the hour. They wanted to run farms along industrial lines with machinery.
“By the 1950s it was acknowledged within the country that the style of government in the USSR was not in keeping with the ideals of the Russian Revolution.” Why was this said?
By 1950s the style of government in the USSR was not in keeping with the ideals of the Russian Revolution. It was said because of the following reasons:
(a) No doubt Russia, being a backward country, had become a great power with developments in industries and agriculture and feeding the poor. But at the same time its citizens were denied the essential freedoms.
(b) Its developmental projects were carried through repressive policies.
(c) Workers faced hardships with poor working conditions.
What were the main objectives of the Russian Revolutionaries? [HOTS]
The following were the main objectives of the Russian Revolutionaries.
(a) Peace: The Russian revolutionaries wanted to maintain peace and order in the country. The people of Russia were against the war. Just after the fall of Tzar, Russia withdrew from the war.
(b) Land to the Tiller: The Russian revolutionaries were of the opinion that the agricultural land should be allotted to the cultivators as the peasants in Russia were leading a miserable life under the large landowners.
(c) Control of industry by the workers: In Russia, the capitalists greatly exploited the workers. This made the condition of Russian workers deplorable. There was great need to control the industry by workers themselves.
(d) Equal status for the non-Russian nationalists: The Russian revolutionaries demanded equal status
for the non-Russian nationalities. Just after the revolution, a declaration of the people was issued by the new government conferring them political autonomy. (any three)
Long Answer Type Questions
What changes did industrialisation bring to the then society in Russia?
The following changes were brought in the Russian society with the advent of industrialisation.
(a) The society saw profound social and economic changes.
(b) It was a time when new cities came up and new industrialised regions developed and railways expanded.
(c) Industrial Revolution brought men, women and children to factories.
(d) Work hours were often long and wages were very low.
(e) During the time of low demand, unemployment was common.
(f) As the towns were growing rapidly, problems like housing and sanitation emerged.
What solutions did radicals and liberals find to the problem of the industrial society?
The following solutions were found by the radicals and the liberals to the problems of Industrial society.
(a) They felt that efforts should be made to make the workforce healthy and educated.
(b) They were opposed to the privileges enjoyed by the old aristocracy.
(c) They advocated value of individual effort, labour and enterprise.
(d) They thought of freedom of individuals so that poor could labour and those with capital could operate freely. This would develop the society.
(e) It was also sought that the government should be removed through revolution.
Explain how a society, according to socialists, can operate without property. What would be the basis of socialist society?
Socialists had different visions of the future. Robert Owen, a leading English manufacturer, sought to build a cooperative community called New Harmony in Indiana (USA). Some other socialists felt that cooperatives could not be built on a wide scale through individual initiative only. The governments must encourage cooperatives and replace capitalist enterprise. The same view was propagated by Louis Blanc in France. It was said that cooperatives were to be associations of people who produced goods together and divided the profits according to the work done by members.
More ideas were added to this body of arguments by Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels. Marx argued that industrial society was capitalist who owned resources and invested in the factories. The profit was produced by the workers but they did not gain anything. Their condition could improve only if they were freed from the clutches of capitalist exploitation.
Control of means and factors of production by the workers themselves can be the basis of such a socialist society. For this, the workers needed to construct a radically socialist society where all property was socially controlled. This would be a communist society.
What developments took place in Europe in support of socialism?
The following developments took place in Europe in support of socialism.
(a) An international body, called the Second International was formed by the socialists to coordinate the efforts of the workers.
(b) Workers Associations were formed to fight for better living and working conditions.
(c) Funds were set up to help members in times of distress.
(d) Workers demanded a reduction in working hours and the right to vote.
(e) In many places in Europe, these associations worked closely with the Social Democratic Party and helped it win parliamentary seats.
(f) In 1905, socialists and trade unionists formed Labour Party in Britain and a Socialist Party in France.
What were the events preceding the 1905 Revolution in Russia?
The following events preceded the 1905 Revolution in Russia.
(a) The year 1904 was a particularly bad one for Russian workers. Prices of essential goods rose rapidly and the real wages declined.
(b) The membership of workers’ associations rose dramatically.
(c) There was a call for an industrial action when four of the workers at the Putilov Iron Works were dismissed.
(d) There were mass strikes by the workers demanding reduction in the working hours, an increase in wages and improvement in working conditions.
(e) When a procession of workers led by the Father Gapon reached the Winter Palace it was attacked by the police and the cossacks that killed hundreds of the workers. This incident is known as Bloody Sunday.
(f) There were strikes all over the country and universities closed, student bodies staged walkouts, complaining lack of civil liberties. Various unions of doctors, engineers and other middle-class workers were established that demanded a constituent assembly. (any five)
Describe the steps taken by Tsar Nicholas II after the Revolution to maintain his authority.
The following steps were taken by Tsar Nicoholas II after the Russian Revolution to maintain his authority:
(a) Under pressure, he allowed the creation of an elected consultative Parliament or Duma.
(b) Most committees and unions were declared illegal. Severe restrictions were placed on political activity.
(c) Later he dismissed the first Duma within 75 days and re-elected second Duma within three months.
(d) The voting laws were changed.
(e) The third Duma was packed with conservatives and tried to keep liberals and revolutionaries out of the Duma.
What were the conditions in Russia during the First World War?
The following were the conditions in Russia during the First World War.
(a) Russia became a part of First World War in 1914. In the beginning, the war was popular. The Tsar refused to consult the main parties in the Duma. This led to weaken the support within Russia. Anti-German sentiments among the Russians were on an increase. St Petersburg, a German name was renamed as Petrograd.
(b) Russia’s armies suffered defeats in Germany and Austria between 1914 and 1916. Casualties were very high. Soldiers did not wish to fight such a war. The retreating Russian army destroyed crops and buildings to prevent them from being used by the enemies. This led to millions of refugees in Russia.
(c) The Tsar and the government were further discredited for the situation.
(d) The war also had a severe impact on industry. Russia had few industries and that too were cut
off from suppliers of industrial goods by German control of the Baltic Sea. Industrial equipment began to disintegrate, railway lines began to break down.
(e) Able-bodied men were called up to the war that resulted in labour shortages and shut down of small workshops.
(f) Grains were sent to feed the army which led to food shortage in cities. Riots at bread shops were common. (any five)
Discuss the role and importance of Lenin in the history of the USSR. [HOTS]
Examine the role of Lenin in Russian Revolution.
After returning from exile, Lenin felt that the time was right for the Soviets to take over the power in Russia. Following was the role played by Lenin in Russian Revolution 1917.
(a) He led the Bolsheviks in the revolution.
(b) He declared three points, to end war, transfer land to peasants and nationalisation of banks that came to be known as April Theses.
(c) He introduced radical land reforms that led to turn Russia into a socialist society.
(d) He was the driving force behind the October Revolution that eventually led to the formation of the Soviet Union.
(e) Lenin was instrumental in the victory of Bolsheviks in the civil war (1917-1922).
Why did Bolshevik Party accept the ‘April Theses’? Give any five reasons. [CBSE 2016]
Bolshevik Party accepted the April Theses’ because of the following reasons.
(a) The Provisional Government under Kerenskii failed to fulfil the aspirations of the people like land to the tiller, peace, control of industries by the workers, etc. Rather it became more unpopular.
(b) The government was under the influence of landowners, army officials and industrialists that affected its decisions.
(c) Lenin felt that time had come to seize the power from the government.
(d) People’s demands were included in the programme along with exit from the war and nationalisation of banks.
(e) Lenin’s view was accepted when the Provisional Government began suppressing the Bolsheviks.
Discuss the civil war that took place in Russia after the October Revolution and its consequences.
When the Bolsheviks ordered land redistribution the Russian army began to break up. They wished
to return home for getting land. Non-Bolshevik socialists, liberals and supporters of autocracy condemned the Bolshevik uprising with the support of those who were apprehensive of the growth of socialism. There was mass looting, banditry and famine during the civil war. The pro-Tsarists who supported private property suppressed the peasants and took their land. This made non-Bolsheviks unpopular. Bolsheviks were supported by non-Russian nationalities and jadidists. Local nationalists were massacred by the Bolsheviks.
The following were the consequences of the civil war in Russia.
(a) The civil war created confusion about the Bolsheviks way of working.
(b) It made the Bolsheviks quite unpopular.
(c) Non-Russian nationalities were given political autonomy.
(d) Nomadism was harshly discouraged.
(e) The Bolsheviks failed to win over different nationalities.
Mention the important steps taken by Lenin to improve the agriculture and economy of Russia.
The following steps were taken by Lenin to improve agriculture and economy of Russia.
(a) Most of the industries and banks were nationalised.
(b) He ordered land redistribution and permitted peasants to cultivate the land.
(c) Centralised planning was introduced. Five year plans were made.
(d) The government fixed all price during the first two year plans.
(e) Communes were set up and income was divided according to the principles of cooperative commission.
What steps were taken to improve the condition of factory workers and peasants in Russia after the civil war?
The following steps were taken to improve the conditions of the factory workers in Russia after the civil war.
(a) Various industries were set up like in Magnitogorsk city.
(b) Extended schooling system developed so that factory workers could also access universities.
(c) Creches for children of women factoryworkers were established.
(d) Cheap public healthcare was provided. Model living quarters were built up for workers.
(e) Lenin ordered land redistribution and permitted peasants to cultivate the land.
(f) Communes were set up and income was divided according to the problems of cooperative commission.
Critically examine Stalin’s collectivisation programme. [HOTS]
Stalin began collectivisation programme to find a solution to the food shortage. But this proved to be disastrous in the subsequent years in the following ways:
(a) The policy of eliminating kulaks and establishing state-owned farms was widely criticised.
(b) Peasants were compelled to work in the kolkhoz.
(c) Peasants resisted the authorities and their livestock were destroyed. It resulted in the decline of cattle.
(d) Policy of deportation and severe punishment was followed for all those who refused to do so.
(e) There was no such increase in the production of food grains. Even his party members criticised Stalin the way the policy was followed.
Explain the global influence of the Russian Revolution and the USSR.
Explain the impact of the Russian Revolution on the world. [CBSE 2014]
The following was the global influence of Russian Revolution and the USSR.
(a) In many countries, communist parties were formed on the line of Russia.
(b) It gave the world a new economic system known as socialism.
(c) The Bolsheviks encouraged colonial peoples to follow their experiment. It inspired a number of freedom movements in other countries.
(d) Many non-Russians from outside the USSR participated in the Conference of the Peoples of the East and the Bolshevik-founded Comintern. Some even received education in the USSR’s Communist University of the Workers of the East.
(e) By the time the Second World War broke, socialism had acquired a global face.
(f) Though by the end of the twentieth century, the image of USSR as a socialist country declined, yet it’s socialist ideals were respected and rethought in many ways suiting individual interests.
Seven features A, B, C, D, E, F and G are marked on the political map of world. Identify these features with the help of given information and write their correct names.
- Central Powers of First World War.
- Allied Powers of First World War.
- Central Powers → A. Germany, B. Austria-Hungary, C. Turkey (Ottoman Empire)
- Allied Powers → D. France, E. England, F. Russia, G. Ameriea (USA)
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