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Nationalism in India Class 10 Extra Questions History Chapter 3
VERY SHORT ANSWER QUESTIONS
Answers should not exceed 30 words.
With which idea the modern nationalism in Europe is associated ?
Modem nationalism in Europe was associated with the formation of nation-states.
In India what tied many different groups together against colonial power ?
The sense of being oppressed under colonialism provided a shared bond that tied different groups together.
What was forced recruitment ?
Forced recruitment was a process by which colonial state forced people to join the army.
Why did Gandhiji go to Champaran in 1916 ?
In 1916 Mahatma Gandhi went to Champaran to inspire the peasants to struggle against the oppressive plantation system.
Which Satyagraha movement was organised in Ahmedabad and when ?
In 1918 Mahatma Gandhi went to Ahmedabad to organise satyagraha movement amongst cotton mill workers.
State one oppressive feature of Rowlatt Act ?
It allowed detention of political prisoners without trial for two years.
When did Jallianwala Bagh massacre take place and where ?
Jallianwala Bagh massacre took place on 13 April, 1919 at Amritsar.
Which famous book was written by Mahatma Gandhi in 1909 ?
For what the Congress session of December 1920 is known ?
At Congress session (Nagpur) non-cooperation programme was adopted by the Congress.
Which party in the province of Madras did not boycott the council elections 9
Who was Khalifa ?
The Ottoman Emperor was Khalifa or the spiritual head of the Islamic world.
What was picket ?
Picket was a form of demonstration or a procession by which people block the entrance to shop, factory or office.
According to Gandhiji which were two stages of non-cooperation movement ?
- In the first stage, there should be surrender of titles that the government awarded and boycott of civil services, army, police, courts, legislative councils, schools and foreign goods.
- In case of repressive policy by the government, a full civil disobedience campaign would be launched in the second stage.
Why people could not afford Khadi ?
Khadi cloth was often more expensive than mass produced mill cloth and poor people could not afford to buy it.
What was begar ?
Begar was a labour that villagers were forced to contribute without any payment.
What happened at Chauri-Chaura in 1922 ?
The movement turned violent and twenty two policemen were burnt to death.
Which party came to power in Britain in 1929 and appointed Simon Commission and why ?
Tory Party came to power and appointed Simon Commission to look into the functioning of the constitutional system in India.
When did Simon Commission arrive in India and why was it boycotted ?
Simon Commission arrived in India in 1928. It was boycotted because no Indian was member of this Commission.
Who was the president of Congress at Lahore ? When was it held ?
The 1929 session of Congress was held in Lahore under the presidentship of Jawahar Lai Nehru.
Why was the demand to abolish the salt tax selected ?
The demand to abolish the salt tax was included in the demands because salt was something consumed by the rich and the poor alike and it was one of the most essential item of food.
What was the view of Mahatma Gandhi about salt tax and govt, monopoly lover it ?
Mahatma Gandhi declared that the tax on salt and the government monopoly over its production revealed the most oppressive face of British rule.
By which march the Civil Disobedience Movement started ?
State one difference between Non-cooperation and Civil Disobedience Movement.
People were now asked not only to refuse cooperation with the British, as they had done in 1921-22, but also to break colonial law such as salt tax law.
When was a pact with Lord Irwin signed ? How is it known ?
The pact known as Gandhi-Irwin Pact, was signed on 5th March, 1931.
What was main clause of the Gandhi-Irwin Pact (1931) ?
Gandhiji consented to participate in the Second Round Table Conference in London and the government agreed to release the political prisoners.
Why the Congress was reluctant to include workers’ demands as part of its programme of Civil Disobedience Movement ?
The Congress was reluctant to include workers’ demands as part of its programme because it was felt that this would alienate industrialists and divide the anti-imperial forces.
Who organised the dalits into the Depressed Classes Association in 1930 ?
What was the demand of BR Ambedkar for the dalits at the Second Round Table Conference ?
BR Ambedkar demanded separate electorate for the dalits.
Which are the different factors in making of nationalism ?
History and fiction, folklore and songs, popular prints and symbols all played a part in the making of nationalism.
Who wrote ‘Vande Mataram’ in 1870s ?
In 1870s Bankim Chandra Chattopadhyay wrote “Vande Mataram’ as a hymn to the motherland.
During Swadeshi Movement who painted the image of Bharat Mata ?
Moved by Swadeshi Movement Abanindranath Tagore painted image of Bharat Mata.
Who designed the Swaraj flag ? Which colours were included in it ?
Gandhiji designed the swaraj flag. It was a tricolour – red, green and white and had a spinning wheel in the centre, representing the Gandhian ideal of self-help.
QUESTIONS OF 3/5 MARKS
Answers should he in about 80/100 words.
Why did Gandhiji decide to launch a nationwide Satyagraha against the proposed Rowlatt Act 1919 ? [CBSE 2016]
Who passed the Rowlatt Act and when ? Explain two major provisions of the Rowlatt Act.
See Textbook Exercise Question 1(c).
Explain the reasons and effects of Jallianwala Bagh massacre.
Narrate the events leading to the Jallianwala Bagh massacre on 13 April, 1919. What were its effects ?
(A) The reasons/events leading to the Jallianwala Bagh massacre were as mentioned below :
- In March 1919, Rowlatt Act was passed despite the united opposition of the Indian members. It gave powers to the government to detain political prisoners without trial for two years.
- Gandhiji decided to start non-violent civil disobedience against Rowlatt Act with a hartal on 6 April, 1919.
- Activities under the movement were as given below :
(a) Rallies were organised in various cities.
(b) Workers went on strike in railway workshops.
(c) Shops were closed.
- Policy of the government: The government was alarmed by the popular participation in the movement and was afraid that the lines of communications – railways and telegraph would be disrupted, it decided to follow a stric policy as given below :
(a) Local leaders in Amritsar were arrested.
(b) Mahatma Gandhi was barred from entering Delhi.
(c) On April 10,1919, the police in Amritsar fired upon a peaceful procession. As a result of firing people were provoked and attacked banks, post offices and railway stations.
(d) The government in order to control the situation, imposed Martial Law. General Dyer took command.
- On 13 April, 1919, i.e., Baisakhi day, villagers gathered in a fair in Jallianwala Bagh. They were unaware of the Martial Law that had been imposed. Dyer entered the area and blocked the exit point. He opened fire on the crowd, killing hundreds. He declared later that his object was to ‘produce a moral effect’, i.e., create in the minds of satyagrahis a feeling of terror and awe.
(B) Effects :
- After the Jallianwala Bagh massacre crowds took to the streets in many north Indian towns. There were strikes, clashes with the police and attacks on government buildings.
- The government, on the other hand, followed a policy of repression.
(a) They humiliated and terrorised people.
(b) Satyagrahis were forced to rub their noses on the ground.
(c) They were forced to crawl on the streets and salam all sahibs.
(d) People were flogged.
(e) Some villages around Gujranwala in Punjab were bombed. As the violence spread, Gandhiji called off the movement.
Why did Mahatma Gandhi feel the need to launch a more broad-hased movement in India ? How did he achieve this object ?
(A) The reason for a more broad-based movement was that the Rowlatt Satyagraha had been a widespread movement but it was mostly limited to cities and towns.
(B) Gandhiji achieved his object in the way as mentioned below :
- Gandhiji felt that a more broad-based movement could not be organised without bringing Hindu-Muslim unity.
- (a) One way of achieving Hindu-Muslim unity was to take up the Khilafat issue.
(b) After the defeat of Turkey in World War I there were rumours that harsh terms would be imposed on the emperor of Turkey who was also the Khalifa or the spiritual head of the Muslims.
(c) The Indian Muslims decided to defend the temporal powers of the Khalifa.
id) Muhammad Ali and Shaukat Ali — two brothers, met Gandhiji who saw this as an opportunity to bring two communities closer and start a unified national movement.
- Congress sessions at Calcutta and Nagpur:
(a) In the special session of the Congress at Calcutta in September 1920, inspite of opposition of some leaders, Gandhiji convinced leaders to start a Non-Cooperation Movement in support of Khilafat as well as for swaraj.
(b) However, many within the Congress were reluctant to boycott the council elections scheduled for November 1920, and they feared that the movement might lead to violence.
(c) But finally at Nagpur session in December 1920, a compromise between two Congress groups was worked out and the Non-Cooperation programme was adopted in support of Khilafat as well as for Swaraj.
How had non-cooperation spread in cities ? Explain. Why did it gradually slow down ? [CBSE 2016]
(a) In the towns, middle classes participated in the movement in the following ways :
- Students left the schools and colleges. Headmasters and teachers resigned. Lawyers gave up their practice.
- Elections were boycotted except in Madras, where Justice Party, took part in elections because it was a party of non-Brahmans and felt that entering the Council was one way of gaining some power – something that usually only Brahmans had access to.
- Foreign goods were boycotted.
- Liquor shops were picketed.
- Foreign clothes were burnt in huge bonfires.
- Many traders refused to import foreign cloth or trade in foreign goods.
(b) Economic effects of Non-Cooperation Movement were as given below :
- The import of foreign cloth decreased from ? 102 crore to K 57 crore between 1921 and
- In many places merchants and traders refused to trade in foreign goods or finance foreign trade.
- People discarded foreign clothes and started wearing only Indian clothes. This led to increased production by the Indian textile mills and handlooms.
(c) The movement in the cities gradually slowed down for the reasons as given below :
- Khadi was often more expensive than mass produced mill cloth and poor people could not afford to buy it.
- Similarly the boycott of British institutions failed because to be successful alternative Indian institutions could not be set up in place of the British ones. As a result of it, students and teachers began to go back to government schools.
- The lawyers too joined back work in government courts.
Describe the causes, events and results of peasants movement of Awadh during the Non-Cooperation Movement.
During the Non-Cooperation Movement, the peasants of Awadh under the leadership of Baba Ramchandra – a sanyasi, participated.
- Causes :
(a) The talukdars and landlords demanded high rents and other cesses from the peasants who had to do begar and work at landlord’s farms without payment.
(b) As tenants, there was no security of tenure and no right over the leased land.
- Object and demands : The demands included reduction of revenue, abolition of begar, and social boycott of oppressive landlords.
- Activities during the movement:
(a) In many places, nai-dhobi bandhs were organised by panchayats to deprive landlords of the services of even barbers and washermen.
(b) By October 1920 Oudh Kisan Sabha was formed. It was headed by Jawaharlal Nehru who had gone there, talked to the villagers to understand their grievances.
(c) Within a month over 300 branches had been setup in the villages around this region.
(d) After the start of non-cooperation movement Congress tried to integrate the Awadh peasants struggle into a wider struggle.
(e) The peasant movement, however, developed in forms that the Congress leadership was unhappy with because in 1921 the houses of talukdars and merchants were attacked, bazars were looted, and grain hoards were taken over.
- The local leaders told peasants that Gandhiji had declared that no taxes were to be paid and land was to be redistributed among the poor. The name of Gandhiji was used to sanction all actions and aspirations.
- Results : As the peasants struggle had turned violent, the Congress was unhappy.
Write a short note on the participation of tribal peasants in the Gudem Hills of Andhra Pradesh in the Non-Cooperation Movement.
- Causes for participation :
(a) The colonial government had closed large forest areas, preventing people from entering the forests to graze their cattle, or to collect fuelwood and fruits.
(b) These restrictions had affected their livelihoods as well as their traditional rights.
(c) They were forced to contribute begar for road building.
- Activities : They attacked police stations and attempted to kill British officials and carried on guerrilla warfare for achieving swaraj.
- Their leader and his views : Alluri Sitaram Raju led them in the militant guerrilla movement. He was influenced by Gandhiji and persuaded them to wear khadi and give up drinking. He believed in the use of force for liberation of the country. He was captured and executed in 1924 and became a folk hero.
- Importance : This shows that tribal people were also influenced by Non-Cooperation Movement and took part in it in their own way. Tribal peasants, however, could not achieve their objects because such activities were not approved by the Congress.
“The plantation workers in Assam had their own understanding of Mahatma Gandhi and the nation of Swaraj.” Support the statement with arguments. [CBSE2016]
Describe why did the plantation workers of Assam join the Non-Cooperation Movement. What were its results ? What was the importance of movement of plantation workers and other such movements ?
(a) Object : Under the Inland Emigration Act of 1859, plantation workers in Assam were not permitted to leave the tea gardens without permission. In practice they were rarely given such permission. For them freedom meant the right to move freely in and out of the Confined space in which they were enclosed and it meant retaining a link with the village from which they had come. They believed that under Gandhi Raj everyone would be given land in their own village.
(b) Events :
- During the movement, thousands of workers defied the authorities.
- They left the plantations and headed home.
- They, however, never reached their destination. Stranded on the way by a railway and steamer strike, they were caught by the police and brutally beaten up.
(c) Importance :
- The objects of movement of plantation workers and other such movements (of tribal people in Gudem Hills of Andhra Pradesh) were not defined by the Congress programme. They interpreted the term Swaraj in their own ways. They hoped that time will come when their all miseries would come to an end.
- The tribals chanted Gandhiji’s name and raised slogans demanding ‘Swatantra Bharat This way they were also emotionally relating to an all India agitation.
- When they acted in the name of Mahatma Gandhi or linked their movement with Congress, they were identifying with a movement which went beyond the limits of their immediate locality.
Write a short note on Swaraj Party.
After the suspension of the Non-Cooperation Movement in 1922, there were two groups in the Congress. Some leaders were tired of mass struggles and wanted to participate in the council elections. They were of the opinion that the British policies should be opposed within the councils. They should ask for more reforms and demonstrate that these councils were not truly democratic. These leaders were C.R. Das and Motilal Nehru who formed Swaraj Party for fighting elections and to return to council politics.
The other group was led by younger elements like Jawaharlal Nehru and Subhash Chandra Bose who were in favour of more radical mass agitation and for full independence. However, the swarajists were allowed to fight elections. They succeeded only to some extent in 1923. In 1926, elections they did not succeed due to death of C.R. Das.
Simon Commission was greeted with slogan “Go Back Simon” at arrival in India. Support this reaction of Indians with arguments. [CBSE 2016]
(a) In 1928, Simon Commission was constituted by the Tory government in Britain in response to the nationalist movement.
(b) The object of the Commission under Sir John Simon, was to look into the functioning of the constitutional system in India and suggest changes. But the problem was that the commission did not have a single Indian member. All the members were British.
It was under these circumstances that the Indians decided to boycott the commission. So when the commission arrived in India in 1928, it was greeted with the slogan ‘Go back Simon’. All parties including the Congress and the Muslim League, participated in the demonstrations.
(c) The demonstration by all parties against the Simon Commission was justified on the following grounds :
- Under the Government of India Act of 1919, the provincial councils set up were not truly democratic.
- The powers were still in the hands of the Governor General of India.
- In response to the demands of the Indians, Simon Commission was appointed to look into the constitutional reforms in India but it was strange that no Indian was appointed as a member. This was an insult for the Indians.
- Not to include an Indian was against the spirit of nationalists in India. Hence
demonstration against Simon Commission. .
Describe the main events leading to Civil Disobedience Movement or Salt- Satyagraha in 1930. .
Describe the different factors that shaped the political situations in the late 1920s.
The main events/factors that led to start of Salt Satyagraha were as mentioned below :
- Boycott of Simon Commission.
- Announcement of Lord Irwin in October 1929.
(a) In October 1929 in order to win over Congress and the Muslim League, Lord Irwin Viceroy made an offer of ‘dominion status’ for India in an unspecified future.
(b) He also stated that a Round Table Conference would be held to discuss a future constitution for India.
- These actions of Lord Irwin could not satisfy the radicals within the Congress.
- Subash Chandra Bose and Jawaharlal Nehru became more assertive.
- The liberals and moderats who were demanding constitutional system within the frame work of British dominion lost their influence.
- Under these circumstances, Congress Session at Lahore was held in December 1929, under the presidency of Jawaharlal Nehru.
- At Lahore session Congress passed a resolution for ‘Purna Swaraj’ or full independence for India. It was declared that 26 January, 1930 would be celebrated as Independence Day and
people were to take a pledge to struggle for independence. Thus the stage was ready for next
part of struggle against the British government.
What were the main demands put forward by Gandhiji in his letter dated 31st January 1930 to Viceroy ? What was the object and importance of Salt Tax ?
(a) After the Lahore session of Congress 26 January 1930 was celebrated as Independence Day. At Lahore resolution for ‘Purna Swaraj’ was passed. So in order to achieve this Gandhiji was authorised to start a movement. Before starting a movement, Gandhiji wrote a letter on
31st January 1930 stating the demands which were wide ranging to include all classes within Indian society.
(b) The abolition of Salt Tax was the most important demand because salt was consumed by the rich as well as poor. It was one of the most essential items of food. The monopoly of the government over its production revealed the most oppressive policy of the British government. , So to attract each and everyone into the movement, Gandhiji included abolition of salt tax in his
eleven demands. The demands were, however, not accepted by the Viceroy. The ground for the start of Civil Disobedience Movement or Salt Satyagraha was now ready.
Describe briefly the Salt March/Dandhi March undertaken by Mahatma Gandhi. What were its importance and effects ?
- As the demands were not fulfilled, Gandhiji started march from his ashram in Sabarmati to the Gujarat coastal town of Dandi.
- He was accompanied by his 78 trusted followers.
- The march continued for 24 days about 10 miles a day.
- During the march Gandhiji explained to the people, the meaning of swaraj and urged them to defy the British laws.
- On reaching Dandi on 6 April, he ceremonially violated the salt law, manufacturing salt by boiling sea water.
(b) Importance :
Manufacturing salt by boiling sea water was the beginning of the Civil Disobedience Movement. It was different from Non-cooperation Movement of 1920-22 because people were asked not only to refuse cooperation with the British but also to break colonial laws such as Salt Law which was the most oppressive face of the British rule.
Describe the various activities that took place during the first phase of the Civil Disobedience Movement. Why was it withdrawn in March 1931 ? [CBSE 2016]
Why did Gandhiji decide to call off the Civil Disobedience Movement ?
(a) The various activities that took place during the first phase of the movement were as mentioned below :
- Violation of salt laws by manufacturing salt.
- Boycott of foreign cloth.
- Picketing of liquor shops.
- Refusal of peasants to pay revenue and chaukidari taxes.
- Resignation of village officials.
- Violation of forest laws and going to Reserved forests to collect wood and grazing cattle.
(b) Policy of the government :
- The government adopted a repressive policy.
- It arrested the Congress leaders.
- Abdul Gaffar Khan, a devout disciple of Gaiidhiji, was arrested in April 1930. It led to clashes in Peshawar.
- In police firing many people were killed.
- In Sholapur, people attacked lawcourts, railway stations and the structures that symbolised the British rule.
- As a result of repressive policy about 100,000 people were arrested.
(c) As a result of government’s repressive policy in which children and women were beaten Gandhiji once again decided to call off the movement. Gandhi-Irwin Pact was signed on 5th March 1931.
What were main features of the Gandhi-Irwin Pact ? How and when was the Civil Disobedience relaunched and lost its momentum ?
(a) Gandhiji decided to call off the movement and entered into a Pact with Irwin on 5 March 1931.
- The main feature of the agreement was that Gandhiji consented to participate in a Round Table Conference in London.
- The government agreed to release the political prisoners.
(b) Gandhiji went to London to attend the Second Round Table Conference as the sole representative of the Congress. The Round Table Conference, however, failed. Gandhiji re¬turned empty handed. On his return, he found that the government was following a repressive policy. Ghaffar Khan and Jawaharlal Nehru had already been arrested. Congress had been declared illegal. The government had taken many steps to prevent meetings, demonstrations and boycotts. Gandhiji restarted the movement again on 1 January, 1932. It continued but soon lost its momentum and was withdrawn in 1934.
Why did the different social groups join the Civil Disobedience Movement ?[CBSE2016]
“The Congress was reluctant to include the demands of industrial workers in its programme of struggle.” Analayse. [CBSE 2016]
The different social groups joined the Civil Disobedience Movement for the reasons as mentioned
(1) Rich peasant communities : The reasons for the rich peasant communities for taking part ire the movement were as given below :
- The rich communities like the Patidars of Gujarat and the Jats of Uttar Pradesh were producers of commercial crops. They were very hard hit by the trade depression and falling prices.
- They were not in a position to pay revenue to the government. They joined the movement in order to get the revenue reduced. They even forced reluctant members to participate in the boycott programmes. For them the fight for swaraj was a struggle against high revenues.
- The refusal of the government to reduce the revenue demand had led to widespread
resentment among the rich peasants.
(2) Poor peasantry :
- Poor peasantry joined the movement in the hope that their unpaid rent to the landlord would be remitted because due to depression they were not in a position to
pay the rent. Many of them were small tenants cultivating land they had rented from landlords. Their cash income had dwindled due to depression.
- The Congress was apprehensive of raising isshes because that might upset the rich peasants and landlords. So, Congress did not support ‘no rent’ campaigns. Thus, the relationship between the poor peasants and the Congress remained uncertain.
(3) Business classes :
- They wanted protection against imports of foreign goods and a rupee-sterling foreign exchange ratio that would discourage imports.
- They formed the Indian Industrial and Commercial Congress in 1920 and the Federation of the Indian Chamber of Commerce and Industries (FICCI) in 1927.
- Prominent industrialists Purshottamdas Thakurdas and G.D. Birla attacked the colonial control over the Indian economy and supported the Civil Disobedience Movement.
- They refused to sell or buy imported goods. Most businessmen came to see swaraj as a time when colonial restrictions on business would no longer exist and trade and industry would flourish without constraints. But after the failure of the Round Table Conference, business groups were no longer uniformly enthusiastic. They were apprehensive of the spread of militant activities. They were also worried about prolonged disruption of business, as well as of the growing influence of socialism amongst the younger members of the Congress.
(4) Industrial working class :
- They did not participate in the movement in large numbers except in the Nagpur region.
- As the industrialists came closer to Congress, the workers stayed aloof.
- Some workers did participate in the Civil Disobedience Movement selectively as mentioned below :
(a) Boycott of foreign goods as part of their own movements against low wages and poor working conditions.
(b) There were strikes by railway workers in 1930.
(c) Dockworkers’ strike in 1932.
(d) In 1930 thousands of workers in Chotanagpur in mines wore Gandhi caps and participated in protest rallies and boycott campaign.It may be mentioned that the Congress was reluctant to include workers’ demands because that would alienate industrialists and divide anti-imperial forces.
What was the role of women in the Civil Disobedience Movement ?
There was large-scale participation of women as mentioned below :
- During salt march, thousands of women came out of their homes to listen him (Gandhiji).
- Women participated in protest marches, manufactured salt and picketed foreign cloth and liquor shops.
- Many went to jail: In urban areas these women were from high caste families; in rural areas they came from rich peasant households.
- They were moved by the call of Gandhiji and began to see service to the nation as a sacred duty of women.The participation, however, did not change their status because Gandhiji was convinced that it was the duty of the women to look after home and hearth to be good mothers and good wives.
Not all social groups were moved by the abstract concept of Swaraj. Support the statement in the light of Civil Disobedience Movement.
Describe the limits of Civil Disobedience Movement.
Thousands of people in different parts of the country broke the salt laws and boycotted foreign cloth. Liquor shops were picketed by women who participated in protest marches and manufactured salt. But there were many social groups that? did not participate in the Civil Disobedience Movement. These were as given below:
- Untouchables : Untouchables or dalits or oppressed for long had been ignored by the Congress because of the fear of offending the sanatanis, the conservative high caste Hindus. The result was that the dalit leaders organised themselves and demanded reserved seats in educational institutions and separate electorates for legislature councils. They thought that political empowerment would solve their problems. Dalit participation, was, therefore limited particularly in Maharashtra and Nagpur region where their organisation was strong.
- Muslim participation : After the Non-Cooperation Movement, a large section of Muslim felt alienated from the Congress. Relations between Hindus and Muslims had wors-ened. There were communal riots in various cities. However, efforts were made to bring two communities closer by solving the question of representation. But due to failure of these efforts, there was an atmosphere of suspicion and distrust between these two communities. Thus, large sections of Muslims remained alienated from the Congress and did not participate in the Civil Disobedience Movement. They feared that the culture and identity of minorities would be in danger under the domination of a Hindu majority.
Describe the views of Mahatma Gandhi on untouchability and efforts made by him to get Harijans their rights.
(a) Mahatma Gandhi was against untouchability. He declared that swaraj would not come for a hundred years if untouchability was not eliminated. He called the ‘untouchables’ harijan or the children of God.
- He organised Satyagraha to secure them entry into temples, and access to public wells, tanks, roads and schools.
- He himself cleaned toilets to dignify the work of the bhangi (sweepers).
- He persuaded upper caste to change their heart and give up ‘the sin of untouchability’.
Describe Poona Pact of September 1932.
After the announcement of Communal Award in August 1932 which gave separate electorate to dalits, Gandhiji began a fast unto death. Gandhiji believed that separate elector¬ates for dalit would slow down the process of their integration into society. Ultimately, Poona Pact was signed in September 1932. This gave the Depressed Classes reserved seats in provincial and central legislative councils. They were, however, to be voted in by the general electorate be., by all the voters in a constituency.
“Nationalism spreads when people begin to believe that they are all part of the same nation.” Support the statement. [CBSE 2015]
It is true to say that nationalism spreads when people begin to believe that they are all part of^the same nation, when they discover some unity that binds them together. In India such sense of collective belonging came partly through the experience of united struggles. But there were also a variety of cultural processes through which nationalism captured people’s imagination. Thus nationalism spreads in the ways as mentioned below :
- Symbol of a figure or image : The identity of India was visualised with the image of Bharat Mata. The image was first created by Bankim Chandra Chattopadhyay. Abanindranath Tagore painted his famous image of Bharat Mata. Devotion to mother figure was treated as evidence of one’s nationalism.
- Revival of Indian folklore : In the late nineteenth century, revival of folklore helped in the development of nationalism. Folk songs and legends, gave a true picture of traditional culture. It helped in discovering national identity and restoring a sense of pride.
- Icons and symbols : More icons and symbols helped in unifying people and inspiring in them a feeling of nationalism. The examples are designing of a tricolour flag during Swadeshi movement, Swaraj flag by Gandhiji in 1921. The carrying, of Swaraj flag during marches and demonstrations became a symbol of defiance.
- Interpretation of history : The interpretation of history also helped in raising the sense of nationalism among the Indians. Nationalist history drew the attention of the Indians to the great achievements of the past as was done by the extremists like Lok Manya Tilak.
- The sense of collective belonging came partly through the experience of united struggles such as Non-Cooperation Movement, Civil Disobedience Movement and Quit India Movement.
There were also variety of cultural processes through which nationalism captured people’s imagination. History and fiction, folklore and songs, popular prints and symbols, all played a part in the making of nationalism.
On the given political outline map of India locate and label the following places of national movement:
The places have been located and labelled. See the map given below :
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