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Minerals and Energy Resources Class 10 Extra Questions Geography Chapter 5
Very Short Answer Questions :
Answers should not exceed 30 words.
State some products/things we use that are made of metals.
Railway lines, a tiny pin, machinery, cars etc. are all made of metals.
Name the minerals which do the cleaning work.
Silica, oxide and phosphate minerals do the cleaning work.
Which rock consists of single mineral only ? [CBSE 2015]
What is a mineral ?
Mineral is a “homogenous” naturally occurring substance with a definable internal structure.
How do Geographers study minerals ?
Geographers study minerals as part of the earth’s crust for a better understanding of landforms.
What is the interest of a geologists in minerals ?
A geologist is interested in the formation of minerals, their age and physical and chemical composition.
State some of the non-metallic minerals.
Non-metallic minerals are mica, salt, potash, sulphur, granite, limestone, marble sand stone etc.
Give some examples of energy minerals.
Coal, petroleum and natural gas are energy minerals.
What type of mineral is copper ?
Copper is a metallic mineral.
Where are minerals found ?
Minerals are found in ores.
What is an ‘ore’ ?
The term ‘ore’ is used to describe an accumulation of any material mixed with other elements.
Where are a number of minerals found in sedimentary rocks ? Give example.
In sedimentary rocks a number of minerals occur in beds or layers. Examples are coal and some forms of iron ore.
Which minerals are formed as a result of evaporation ? Name any two.
Potash salt and sodium salt.
Placer deposits contain minerals which are not corroded by water. Which are these minerals ?
Gold, silver, tin and platinum.
What do you understand by Rat-hole mining ?
In the tribal areas of the north-east India, minerals are owned by individuals or communities. Thus, coal mining in Jowai and Cherapunjee is done by family member in the form of a long narrow tunnel, known as ‘Rat-hole’ mining.
Which reserves of minerals are found in peninsular rocks ?
Peninsular rocks contain most of the reserves of coal, metallic minerals mica and many other non-metallic minerals.
Where petroleum deposits are found in India ?
Sedimentary rocks on the western and eastern flanks of the peninsula, in Gujarat and Assam have most of the petroleum deposits.
Which part of India has no minerals or is devoid of economic minerals ?
The vast alluvial plains of north India are almost devoid of economic minerals.
Which is the main reason for variations in distribution of minerals in India ?
The variations in distribution of minerals in India is due to differences in the geological structure, processes and time involved in the formation of minerals.
Which is the finest iron ore and why ?
Magnetite is the finest ore with a very high content of iron up to 70 per cent. It has excellent magnetic qualities.
From which belt iron ore is exported via Vishakhapatnam port and to which countries ?
Iron ore from the mines of Durg-Bastar-Chandrapur belt is exported to Japan and South Korea via Vishakhapatnam port.
Which are main non-ferrous minerals ?
Copper, lead, bauxite, zinc and gold are non-ferrous metals.
What is the advantage of copper’s use in electrical cables ?
The copper is malleable, ductile-‘and good conductor and therefore its use is advantageous in electrical cables.
Which place in India produces more copper ?
The Balaghat mines in Madhya Pradesh produce 52 per cent of India’s copper.
How are bauxite deposits formed ?
Bauxite deposits are formed by the decomposition of a wide variety of rocks rich in aluminium silicates.
Which state is the largest bauxite producing in India ?
Why is mica the most indispensable mineral used in electric and electronic industries ?
Due to its excellent di-electric strength, low power loss factor, insulating properties and resistance to high voltage, mica is one of the most indispensable mineral used in electric and electronic industries.
From which minerals energy can be generated ?
Energy can be generated from fuel minerals like coal, petroleum, natural gas, uranium and from electricity.
Which are non-conventional source of energy ? Mention any three.
Non-conventional source of energy are solar, wind, biogas, tidal energy.
Which are different types of coal ?
Lignite, bituminous and anthracite.
State two types of electricity.
- Thermal electricity.
Where is Kaiga thermal power plant ?
Kaiga thermal power plant is in Karnataka.
In which state the largest solar power plant is located ?
The largest solar power plant of India is located at Madhapur, near Bhuj.
How hiogas is produced in rural areas ?
Shrubs, farm waste, animal and human waste are used to produce biogas for domestic consumption in rural areas.
Which nuclear plant is situated in Tamil Nadu ?
Kalpakkam nuclear power plant is located in Tamil Nadu.
Which country is ranked as a ‘wind super power’ in the world ?
India is ranked as a ‘wind super power’ in the world.
In India which place provides ideal conditions for utilising tidal energy ?
Gulf of Kuchchh.
What is geothermal energy ?
Geothermal energy refers to the heat and electricity produced by using the heat from the interior of the earth.
How you can contribute towards the conservation of energy resources ? State one way.
We can contribute towards the conservation of energy by using public transport systems instead of individual vehicles.
Which are the two planks of sustainable energy ?
Promotion of energy conservation and increased use of renewable energy sources are the twin planks of sustainable energy.
QUESTIONS OF 3/5 MARKS
Answers should be in about 80/100 words.
Describe the importance of minerals in human life.
- Minerals are an indispensable part of human life. Almost all things we use are made of minerals.
- Human beings use minerals for their livelihood, decoration, festivities, religious and ceremonial rites.
- Buildings, ships, railway lines, cars, buses, aeroplanes, various implements etc. are manufactured from minerals and run on power resources derived from the earth.
- Our food too contains minerals. Life processes cannot occur without minerals.
- They are very important part of total food intake.
- It is only 0.3 per cent of the total intake of nutrients but they are so potent and so important that without them we would not be able to utilise the other 99.7 per cent of the foodstuffs.
- In toothpaste, fluoride which is used to reduce cavities, comes from a mineral fluorite.
“Minerals are found in varied forms in nature ranging from the hardest diamond to the softest talc.” Why are they so varied ?
The reasons are as mentioned below :
- Rocks are combinations of homogenous substances called minerals.
- Majority of the rock consist of several minerals except limestone that consists of a single mineral only.
- A particular mineral depends upon the physical and chemical conditions under which the material forms.
- This in turn, results in a wide range of colours, hardness, crystal forms, luster and density that a particular mineral possesses. Geologists use these properties to classify the minerals.
Which are the ideal conditions under which minerals may be mined ?
The ideal conditions for mining of minerals are as given below :
- The mineral content of the ore must be in sufficient concentration to make its extraction commercially viable.
- The type of formation determines the relative ease with which mineral ores may be mined.
- This also determines the cost of extraction.
Describe the main types of formations in which minerals occur.
The minerals occur in various types of formations as given below :
(1) Igneous and metamorphic rocks : See Textbook Exercise Question 2(3).
(2) In sedimentary rocks : Minerals occur in beds or layers.
- They are formed, as a result of deposition, accumulation and concentration in horizontal
strata e.g., coal and some forms of iron ore have been concentrated as a result of long periods under heat and pressure.
- Gypsum, potash, salt and sodium salt are formed as a result of evaporation, especially in arid regions.
(3) Some minerals like bauxite are formed due to decomposition of surface rocks and the removal of soluble constituents, leaving a residual mass of weathered material containing ores, e.g., bauxite is formed this way.
(4) Certain minerals like gold, silver, tin and platinum occur as alluvial deposits in sands of valley floors and the base of hills. These are called ‘placer deposits’ and contain minerals, which are not corroded by water.
(5) Ocean waters : Some minerals like common salt, magnesium and bromine are largely derived from ocean waters. The ocean beds too are rich in manganese nodules.
Thus, minerals are found in various types of formations.
Describe the factors that play an important role in affecting the economic viability of a reserve. How does reserve turns into a mine ?
(1) Important factors affecting the economic viability of reserve are as mentioned below :
- Concentration of mineral in the ore must be sufficient.
- There should be ease of extraction.
- It must be close to the market.
(2) To meet the demand, a choice is made between a number of possible options.
- When this is done a mineral ‘deposit’ or ‘reserve’ turns into a mine.
“India has fairly rich and varied mineral resources but they are unevenly distributed.” Explain.
(1) The above statement is correct. India is rich in mineral resources but they are unevenly distributed as mentioned below :
- Peninsular rocks : These rocks contain most of the reserves of coal, metallic minerals, mica and many other non-metallic minerals.
- Sedimentary rocks on the western and eastern flanks of the peninsula, in Gujarat and Assam have most of the petroleum deposits.
- Rajasthan with the rock systems of the peninsula, has reserves of many non-ferrous minerals.
- The vast alluvial plains of north India are almost devoid of economic minerals.
(2) Causes of these variations are differences in the geological structure, processes and time involved in the formation of minerals.
Describe the different types of iron ores and their importance or uses.
(1) There are four types of iron ores :
- Magnetite : It is the finest quality with a very high content of iron up to 70 per cent. It has excellent magnetic qualities, especially valuable in electrical industry.
- Haematite : It has content of iron between 50 to 60 per cent. It is the most important
industrial iron that is used in industries. ,
- Limonite : It has iron content of about 40-60 per cent.
- Siderite : It has content of between 40 to 50 per cent.
(2) Iron ore is very important for the industrial development of the country. It is a metal of universal use. It is used for manufacturing of machines, agricultural implements and items of general use.
Describe the major iron ore belts in India.
The major iron ore belts in India are given below :
(1) Orissa-Jharkhand belt :
- High grade haematite ore is found in Badampahar mines in the Mayurbhanj and Kendujhar districts.
- Gua and Noamundi in Singbhum district of Jharkhand.
(2) Durg-Bastar-Chandrapur belt:
- It is in Chhattisgarh and Maharashtra.
- Very high grade haematite is found in Bailadila hills in the Bastar district of Chhattisgarh. It is exported to Japan and South Korea via Vishakhapatnam. The range of hills comprise of 14 deposits of super high grade haematite iron ore. It has the best physical properties needed for steel making.
(3) Bellary-Chitradurga-Chikmaglur-Tumkur belt:
- It is in Karnataka.
- Kudremukh mines in the Western Ghats of Karnataka are a 100% export unit.
- Kudremukh deposits are the largest in the world. The ore is transported as slurry through a pipeline to a port near Mangalore.
(4) Maharashtra-Goa belt:
- In the state of Goa and Ratnagiri district of Maharashtra.
Iron ores are not of very high quality, but efficiently exploited and exported through Marmagao port.
Describe the uses of manganese. Where is it found in India ?
(1) Uses :
- Manganese is mainly used in the manufacturing of steel and ferro-manganese alloy.
- 10 kg of manganese is used to manufacture, one tonne of steel.
- It is also used in manufacturing bleaching powder, insecticides and paints.
(2) Orissa is the largest producer of manganese ores. It produced one-third of the country’s total production in 2000-01. Karnataka produces 15%, Madhya Pradesh 22% and other states produce 30% manganese in the country. See the figure given below :
Describe the distribution of copper in India. What are its uses and what is the position of India regarding its availability ?
- Copper is found in the Balaghat mines (Madhya Pradesh), Singbhum district of Jharkhand and Khetri mines in Rajasthan. The Balaghat mines produce 52 per cent of India’s copper. However, India is critically deficient in the reserve and production of copper.
- Copper is malleable, ductile and a good conductor and is, therefore, mainly used in electrical cables, electronic and chemical industries.
Write a short note on bauxite, its formation, features and distribution in India.
(1) Type of mineral : Bauxite is a clay-like substance from which alumina and later aluminium is obtained. Aluminium is an important metal because it combines the strength of metals such as iron, with extreme lightness and also with good conductivity and great malle-ability.
(2) Formation : Bauxite deposits are formed by the decomposition of a wide variety of rocks rich in aluminium silicates.
(3) Distribution :
- It is found in the Amarkantak plateau, Maikal Hills and the plateau region of Bilaspur-Katni. Orissa is the largest bauxite producing state in India with 45 per cent of the country’s total production in 2000-01.
- Panchpatmali deposits in Koraput district are the most important bauxite deposits in the state.
Name the non-metallic mineral which can split easily into thin sheets ? Mention its uses.
Describe the formation, distribution and uses of mica in India.
- Mica is a non-metallic mineral which can be split easily into thin sheets that a thousand can be layered into a mica sheet of a few centimeters height. It is made up of a series of plates or leaves.
- Mica can be clear, black, green, red, yellow or brown.
- Uses : It has excellent di-electric strength, low power loss factor, insulating properties and resistance to high voltage, and is, therefore, very useful and indispensable mineral in electric and electronic industries.
- Distribution : It is found in the northern edge of the Chhota Nagpur plateau, around Ajmer in Rajasthan and Nellore mica belt of Andhra Pradesh. Koderma Gaya-Hazaribagh belt of Jharkhand is the leading producer of mica.
Describe how limestone is found. What are its uses ? Describe its distribu¬tion in India.
- Limestone is found in association with rocks composed of calcium carbonates or calcium and magnesium carbonates. It is found in sedimentary rocks of most geological formations.
- Uses : Limestone is the basic raw material for the cement industry. It is essential for smelting iron ore in the blast furnace.
- Limestone is produced in Andhra Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh, Rajasthan, Gujarat, Tamil Nadu and some other states.
Describe the hazards of mining or describe the impact of mining on the health of the miners and the environment. What is the position of miners in India ?
(1) The hazards of mining or the impacts of mining on the health of the miners and the environment are given below :
- The dust and noxious fumes inhaled by miners make them vulnerable to pulmonary diseases.
- The risk of collapsing mine roofs, inundation and fires in coalmines are a constant threat to miners.
- The water sources in the area get contaminated due to mining.
- It leads to degradation of soil and land due to dumping of waste and slurry.
- It increases pollution in stream and river.
(2) The condition in coal mines in India are sometimes not satisfactory. Underground fires start mostly from burning trash close to coal pits. Over 50% of coal-belt mines are not safe in India. The companies which own mines do not meet the basic safety standards. The safety status of mines has been graded second and third degrees in the past. Lack of security measures in the coal mines leads to disasters. It has, in practice, become a ‘killer industry’ because many miners are killed every year due to explosions or other incidents in the mines.
Explain the importance of conservation of minerals. Highlight any three measures to conserve them
Why is conservation of minerals necessary ? Explain three methods to conserve them ? [CBSE 2015]
See Textbook Question 2(4).
State another name of lignite coal and write any one feature and use of the same.
Describe qualities of different types of coal found in India. Describe its formation, distribution and uses.
(1) There are four types of coal. Their qualities are given below :
- Peat : It has low carbon and high moisture contents and low heating capacity.
- Lignite : It is a low grade brown coal. It is soft with high moisture content. It is used for generation of electricity.
- Bituminous : It is the most popular coal in commercial use. Metallurgical coal, a high grade bituminous coal has a special value for smelting iron in blast furnaces.
- Anthracite : It is the highest quality hard coal.
(2) Formation : It is formed due to the compression of plant material over millions of years.
(3) Distribution : Coal is found in Damodar valley i.e., West Bengal, Jharkhand, Jharia, Raniganj, Godavari, Mahanadi, Son and Wardha valleys, Meghalaya, Assam, Arunachal Pradesh and Nagaland.
(4) Uses of coal :
- It is used for power generation, to supply energy to industry as well as for domestic needs.
- It meets most of the commercial energy requirements in India.
Highlight the importance of petroleum. Explain the occurrence of petrolei ? in India. [CBSE 2016]
(1) Importance : It is the second major energy source in India after coal. Its uses are as given below:
- It provides fuel for heat and lighting.
- It provides lubricants for machinery.
- It provides raw materials for many manufacturing industries.
- Petroleum refineries act as a ‘nodal industry’ for synthetic, textile, fertiliser an numerous chemical industries.
(2) Occurrences of petroleum is as mentioned below :
- Most of the petroleum occurrences in India are associated with anticlines and fault traps in the rock formations of the tertiary age.
- In regions of folding, anticlines or domes, it occurs where oil is trapped in the crest of the upfold.
- The oil bearing layer is a porous limestone or sandstone through which oil may flow.
- The oil is prevented from rising or sinking by intervening non-porous layers.
(3) Distribution of petroleum : Distribution of petroleum is given below :
- 63% of India’s petroleum production is from Mumbai High, 18 per cent from Gujarat and 16 per cent from Assam.
- Ankeleshwar is the most important field of Gujarat.
- Assam is the oldest oil producing state of India. Digboi, Naharkatiya and Mora a Hugrijan are the important oil fields in the state.
Write a short note on natural gas as a conventional source of energy with special reference to its uses, features and distribution.
- Uses : Natural gas is found in association with or without petroleum. It is an important clean energy resource. It is used as a source of energy and an industrial raw materia ; in the petrochemical industry. The power and fertiliser industries are the main users of natural gas. CNG (Compressed Natural Gas) is used in vehicles in place of liquid fuels.
- Features : It is environment friendly because of low carbon dioxide emissions.
- Distribution : Large-reserves are in the Krishna-Godavari basin, Mumbai High, Gulf of Cambay, Andaman and Nicobar islands.
- The 1700 km long Hazira-Vijaipur-Jagdishpur cross country gas pipeline links Muml High and Bassien with the fertiliser, power and industrial complexes in western and northern India.
What are the two main ways of generating electricity ? How are they different from each other ?
Differentiate between hydro electricity and thermal electricity.
Why per capita consumption of electricity is considered as an index of development ?
(1) Electricity is generated in two ways :
- Hydro electricity : It is generated by fast flowing water which is a renewable source. India is producing hydro electricity through a number of multi-purpose projects like the Bhakra Nangal, Damodar Valley Corporation, the Ropili Hydel Project.
- Thermal electricity : It is generated by using coal, petroleum and natural gas. The thermal power stations use non-renewable fossil fuels for generating electricity. There are over 310 thermal power plants in India.
(2) For progress and prosperity of individuals and the nation, electricity is an important requirement. It is used at homes as well as in offices and in industries. It has a very wide range of applications in today’s world. That is why its per capital consumption is considered as an index of development.
How nuclear or atomic energy is obtained ? Mention the nuclear power stations and the states where they are located.
(1) Nuclear or atomic energy is obtained by altering the structure of atoms. When such an alteration is made, much energy is released in the form of heat and this is used to generate electric power. It is produced by using uranium and thorium. These are available in Jharkhand and the Aravalli ranges of Rajasthan. Monazite sands of Kerala contain uranium. India has vast deposits of thorium which is about 50 per cent of world’s deposits.
(2) Six nuclear power stations are located in the states as mentioned below :
- Naraura – Uttar Pradesh
- Rawat Bhata – Rajasthan
- Kakrapara – Gujarat
- Tarapur – Maharashtra
- Kaiga – Karnataka
- Kalpakkam — Tamil Nadu.
Why should non-conventional energy be used more ? Explain.
Why is there a pressing need for using renewable energy sources in India ? Explain.
The reasons for using renewable energy sources or non-conventional energy such as solar, wind, water are as mentioned below :
- Use of fossil fuels has caused serious environmental problems.
- Rising prices of oil and gas and their potential shortages have raised uncertainties about energy resources in the future.
- India has abundance of sunlight, water, wind and biomass.
- Rising prices of oil etc. has serious repercussions on the growth of the national economy as we have to make payment for import of oil in foreign exchange.
Describe the importance of wind energy in India with special reference to its uses.
India has a wind power potential of 20,000 MW. This energy requires only initial cost on the establishment of wind farm. The largest wind farm cluster is located in Tamil Nadu from Nagarcoil to Madurai. Wind farms have been established in Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Gujarat, Kerala, Maharashtra and Lakshadweep. India now ranks as a “wind super power” in the world.
How is biogas produced ? What are its uses ?
(1) Production : Shrubs, farm waste, animal and human waste are used to produce biogas for domestic consumption in rural areas. Decomposition of organic matter yields gas, which has higher thermal efficiency in comparison to kerosene, dung cake and charcoal.
(2) Uses of biogas :
- Biogas plants are set up at municipal, cooperative and individual levels.
- The plants using cattle dung are known as ‘Gobar gas plants’ which are used in rural India.
- Gobar gas plants are very beneficial for the farmers because they provide energy to the farmers as well as improve quality of manure.
- It prevents the loss of trees and manure due to burning of fuel wood and cow dung cakes.
What is tidal energy ? How does it generate electricity ? Which area provides ideal conditions for utilising tidal energy in India ?
(1) Tidal energy means use of oceanic tides to generate electricity.
(2) Generation of electricity : To generate electricity, floodgate dams are built across inlets. During high tide water flows into the inlet and gets trapped when the gate is closed. After the tide falls outside the floodgate, the water retained by the floodgate flows back to the sea via a pipe that carries it through a power-generating turbine.
(3) Areas of ideal conditions for utilising tidal energy : The Gulf of Kuchchh provides ideal conditions for utilising tidal energy. The National Hydropower Corporation has set up a 900 MW tidal energy power plant in the Gulf of Kuchchh.
What is Geothermal Energy ? Name the places where experimental projects for geothermal energy have been set up in India.
(1) Geothermal Energy : It refers to the heat and electricity produced by using the heat from the interior of the earth.
(2) In India, two experimental projects have been set up as mentioned below :
- In the Parvati Valley near Manikarn in Himachal Pradesh.
- In the Puga Valley, Ladakh.
Describe the steps that should be taken for conservation of energy re¬sources.
The following steps should be taken for conservation of energy resources :
- Use more and more of public transport system and less of individual vehicles.
- Switch off electricity whenever not required.
- Use power-saving devices.
- Check the power equipment regularly.
- Greater use of non-conventional sources of energy.
These steps are necessary because “energy saved is energy produced”.
Show important places where the following minerals are found :
- Iron ore
- Iron ore : Gua, Mayurbhanj, Chandrapur, Bailadila, Ratnagiri, Bellary, Chitradurga and Kudremukh.
- Manganese : Shimoga, Nagpur, Balaghat, Sundergarh and Kendujhar.
- Bauxite : Katni, Amarkantak, Bilaspur, Koraput and Maikala.
- Mica : Ajmer, Beawar, Gaya, Nellore and Hazaribagh.
Six features with serial numbers (1) to (6) are marked in the given political outline map of India. Identify these features with the help of the following information and write their correct names on the lines marked in the map.
- A bauxite mine
- A mica mine
- Iron ore mines
- Iron ore fields
- Iron ore exporting port
The correct names are as given below :
- Orissa-Jharkh and Belt
See map given below :
On the map of India, show the important places of conventional energy resources.
Important places of conventional energy resources are given below :
(1) Coal mines: Neyvali, Singareni, Talcher, Korba, Sirfgarauli, Bokaro, Jharia, Raniganj and Janji.
- Oil fields : Mumbai High, Bassien, Kalol, Ankeleshwar, Hajira and Digboi.
- Major natural gas reserves : Krishna-Godavari Basin, Gulf of Cambay and Mumbai High.
- HVJ natural gas pipeline : Murn Sai High and Bassien – 1,700 km long.
See the map given below :
On the map of India show the nuclear and thermal power plants.
- Nuclear power plants : Six power plants are at Kalpakkam, Kaiga, Tarapur, Ki krapara, Rawat Bhata and Naraura.
- Hermal power plants : There are over Thermal power plants. The main plants are at Delhi, Faridabad, Panki, Barauni, Loktak, Durgapur, Kolkata, Singrauli, Bhusawal, ivawada. Sabarmati and other places.
see the map given below :
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