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Gender Religion and Caste Class 10 Extra questions Civics Chapter 4
QUESTIONS OF 1 MARK
Answers should not exceed 30 words.
What is sexual division of labour ?
It is system in which all work inside the home is either done by the women of the family, or organised by them through the domestic helpers.
State one result of division of labour.
The result of the division of labour is that although women constitute half of the humanity, their role in public life, especially politics, is minimal in most societies.
What do you understand by feminist ?
Feminist is a woman or a man who believes in equal rights and opportunities for women and men.
In which countries in the world, the participation of women in public life is very high ?
Scandinavian countries i.e., Sweden, Norway and Finland.
What is patriarchy ?
Literally, rule by father, this concept is used to refer to a system that values men more and gives them power over women.
What is the literacy rate among men and women in India ?
- Men 76 percent.
- Women 54 percent.
What was the child sex ratio in India in 2001 census and why ?
1000 males to 927 females. The reason for this ratio i.e., less females is that in India parents prefer to have sons and find ways to have the girl child aborted before she is born.
What is the Equal Wages Act ?
The Equal Wages Act provides that equal wages should be paid to equal work to men and women.
What is the national average of child sex ratio ?
National average of child sex ratio is 927.
How the problems of women’s representation, harassment and exploitation can be solved ? State one way as suggested by women’s movements.
One way to solve the problems of women is to ensure that there are more women as elected representatives.
How many seats have been reserved for women in local government bodies i.e., in panchayats and municipalities and since when ?
In 1992 the Constitution was amended and one-third of seats in local government bodies – in panchayats and municipalities – are now reserved for women.
What did Gandhiji say about relation been religion and politics ?
Gandhiji said that religion can never be separated from politics. For him religion was not any particular religion like Hinduism or Islam but moral values that inform all religions. He believed that politics must be guided by ethics drawn from religion.
What are family laws ?
Family laws are those laws that deal with family related matters such as marriage, divorce, adoption, inheritance, etc. In our country, different family laws apply to followers of different religions.
Give one instance that shows relationship between religion and politics.
Women’s movement has argued that Family Laws of all religions discriminate against women. So they have demanded that government should change these laws to make them more equitable.
On which idea is communal politics based ?
Communal politics is based on the idea that religion is the principal basis of social community.
State any one feature of communalism.
The followers of a particular religion must belong to one community. Their fundamental interests are the same. Any difference that they may have is irrelevant or trivial for community life. It also follows that people who follow different religions cannot belong to the same social community.
What is the most common expression of communalism ?
The most common expression of communalism is in everyday beliefs. These routinely involve religious prejudices, stereotypes of religious communities and belief in the superiority of one’s religion over other religions.
How is communalism used in electoral politics ?
In electoral politics, communalism involves special appeal to the interests or emotions of voters of one religion in preference to others.
State any one feature that makes India a secular state.
The Constitution prohibits discrimination on grounds of religion.
What is a special feature of caste system in India ? How is it different from other societies in the world ?
In most societies, occupations are passed on from one generation to another. Caste system is an extreme form of this. In India hereditary occupational division was sanctioned by rituals.
Name a few political leaders and social reformers who advocated and worked to establish a society with inequalities.
Jotiba Phule, Gandhiji, BR Ambedkar and Periyar Ramaswami.
Why the word ‘scheduled’ is used for ‘scheduled castes’ and ‘scheduled tribes’ ?
These groups include hundreds of castes or tribes whose names are listed in an official Schedule. Hence the prefix ‘Scheduled’ is used for them.
Who are called ‘Scheduled Castes’ and why are they called so ?
- The Scheduled Castes, commonly known as Dalits include those who were previously regarded as ‘out caste’ in the Hindu social order.
- They were subjected to exclusion and untouchability.
Who are ‘Scheduled Tribes’ ?
The ‘Scheduled Tribes’ often referred to as ‘Adivasis’ include those communities that led a secluded life usually in hills and forests and did not interact much with the rest of society.
What is urbanisation ?
Urbanisation is shift of population from rural areas to urban areas.
What do you understand by occupational mobility ?
Occupational mobility is shift from one occupation to another, usually when a new generation takes up occupations other than those practiced by their ancestors.
What was the population of different religious groups in India in 2001 ?
The population of different religious groups in India in 2001 was as mentioned below :
- Hindus – 80.5%
- Muslims – 13.4%
- Christians – 2.3%
- Sikhs – 1.9%
- Others – 1.9% (Buddhists — 0.8%, Jain – 0.4%, Others – 0.6%, No religion – 0.1%)
What is caste hierarchy ?
Caste hierarchy is a ladder like formation in which all caste groups are placed from the ‘highest’ to the ‘lowest’ caste.
What was the economic status of different caste groups in India in 1999¬2000?
The average economic status of different caste groups in 1999-2000 was as mentioned below:
- The upper castes were best off.
- The Dalits and Adivasis were worst off.
- The Backward Classes were in between the upper castes and the Dalits.
Give two examples of caste as it exists in India now.
Untouchability has not ended completely.
Even now most people marry with in their own caste or tribe.
State any form which can be taken by caste in politics.
Political parties choose candidates in elections keeping in mind the caste composition of the electorate and nominate candidates from different castes so as to muster necessary support to win elections.
Mention any one of the factors that are decisive in elections.
People’s assessment, of the performance of the government and the popularity rating ‘ of the leaders matter and are often decisive in elections.
Mention one way in which caste is politicised,
New kinds of caste groups have come up in the political arena like ‘backward’ and ‘forward’ caste groups.
State any one negative result of paying exclusive attention to caste in a democracy.
Politics based on caste identity alone can divert attention from other pressing issues like poverty, development and corruption.
QUESTIONS OF 3/5 MARKS
Answers should he in about 80/100 words.
‘Gender division is not based on biology but on social expectations and stereotypes.’ Support the statement.
What is Gender division ? How is it practiced ? What are its consequences ?
- Gender division : It is a form of hierarchial social division. Generally, it is considered as natural and unchangeable. Actually it is based not on biology but on social expectations and stereotypes.
- Division in practice :
- There is common belief that the main responsibility of women is housework and bringing up children as reflected in a sexual division of labour.
- Men do the work such as cooking, tailoring if these jobs are paid for. For example most tailors or cooks in hotels are men.
- Women too work outside their home. Poor women work as domestic servant in middle
class homes while in urban area women work in offices along with men. It is done in addition
- their domestic work. But their work is not valued and does not get recognition.
- Results :
- Although the population of women is half of the humanity, their role in . public life especially politics, is minimal in most societies.
- This has led to agitations for equal rights for women such as voting rights, enhancing the political and legal status of women and improving their educational and career opportunities. These movements are called ‘feminist’ movements.
What are feminist movements ? How have they brought improvement in the condition of women ?
- A woman or man who believes in equal rights and opportunities for women and men is a feminist. Thus these feminist movements aimed at equality in personal and family life.
- As a result of these feminist movements, the condition of women has improved as mentioned
- Their role in public life was improved.
- They are working as scientists, doctors, engineers, lawyers, managers, college and university teachers which were earlier not considered suitable for women.
- In Scandinavian countries such as Sweden, Norway and Finland, the participation of women in public life is very high.
‘In our country, women still lag much behind men despite some improvements since independence.’ Justify this statement by giving three reasons.
“How women in India still face discrimination and oppression in various ways ?” Support the statement with five examples.
“Women in Indian society still suffer from discrimination and oppression.” Support the statement with suitable examples.
“Women are discriminated or disadvantaged in India.” Justify the statement with any three suitable examples.
In what ways are women discriminated in our country ? Write any three points.
Refer to Textbook Question No. 1.
Why the work done by men is visible but work done by women remains unpaid and invisible ?
A survey conducted in six states in India shows that an average woman works everyday for a little over seven and half hours while an average man works for six and a half hours. Yet the work done by men is more visible because most of their work leads to generation of income. Women also do a lot of direct income generating work, but the bulk of their work is household related. This work remains unpaid and invisible.
What were feminist movements ? What were the causes of these movements ? Explain the demands of these movements in India.
(1) Feminist movements were those movements which believed in equal rights and opportunities for women and men.
(2) The reason for these movements was that the issues related to women’s well being or otherwise are not given adequate attention by the government or the society.
(3) The main political demands of the Feminists in India were/are as mentioned below :
- To have fair proportion of women in elected bodies. In the sphere of Panchayati Raj it
has been done. Under it at least one-third of all positions are reserved for women.
- Women organisations’ demand is a similar reservation of at least one-third of seats in the Lok Sabha and State Assemblies. A bill with this proposal has been pending before the Parliament for more than a decade. Also see Textbook Question 5.
Describe relationship between religion and politics. Mention three instances. Also mention its effects. t
(1) The instances showing relationship between religion and politics are as mentioned below :
- Religion cannot be separated from politics :
- Gandhiji considered religion a part of politics. Man’s activities cannot be divided into water-tight compartments.
- He believed that without religion, politics would be dirty and a shameful game. For Gandhiji religion was not particular religion like Hinduism or Islam but moral values that inform all religions. Religion brings morality into politics. He believed that politics must be guided by ethics drawn from religion.
- Government to protect religious minorities : Human rights groups are of the view that the communal riots in the country affect the religious minorities – who are the only victims in such incidents. They demand that the government should protect the religious minorities.
- Family laws : Women’s movement has argued that the family laws of all religions discriminate against women. They demand that steps should be taken by the government to enhance their rights and to bring equality between men and women.
(2) Effects :
- All these instances involve a relationship between religion and politics. These are not dangerous ideas.
- Ideas, ideals and values drawn from different religions can and should play a role in politics.
- People should be able to express in politics their needs, interests and demands as a member of a religious community.
- The government/state should be able to regulate the practice of religion so as to prevent discrimination and oppression. Every religion should be treated equally.
What is communal politics ? Highlight different situations when the problem of communalism becomes acute.
- Communal politics/Communalism relates to the use of religion in politics.
- The problem of communalism begins and becomes acute in the following situations :
- When religion is seen as the basis of the nation.
- When religion is expressed in politics in exclusive and partisan terms. One religion and its followers are pitted against another.
- When beliefs of one religion are presented as superior to those of other religions.
- When the demands of one religious group are formed in opposition to another and state power is used to establish domination of one religious group over the rest.
What are the ideas that involve communalism ? Explain.
(A) The ideas that involve communalism are as mentioned below :
- It is based on the idea that religion is the principal basis of social community.
- It believes that the followers of a particular religion must belong to one community. Their fundamental interests are the same. Any difference that they may have is irrelevant or trivial for community life.
- It also follows that people who follow different religions cannot belong to the same social community. If the followers of different religions have some commonalities these are superficial and immaterial. Their interests are bound to be different and involve a conflict.
- In its extreme form communalism leads to the belief that people belonging to different religions cannot live as equal citizens within one nation. Either, one of them has to dominate the rest or they have to form different nations.
(B) Drawbacks : The belief of communalism ha:? flaws as mentioned below :
- People of one religion do not have same interests and aspirations in every context.
- Everyone has several other roles, positions and identities. There are many voices inside every communities. For example before independence Muslims were members of the Congress as well as Muslim League. It implies that there are many voices inside every community. All these voices have a right to be heard and should not be suppressed.
How can communalism take various forms in politics ? Explain. [CBSE 2016-17]
See Textbook Question 2.
What is a secular state ? Explain factors which make India a secular state. [CBSE 2016-17]
- A secular state is a concept of secularism, whereby a state is or purports to be officially neutral in matters of religion, supporting neither religion nor irreligion. It grants equal status to all religions.
- In India secularism means equal treatment of all religions by the state. With the 42nd Amendment of the Constitution of India enacted in 1976, the Preamble to the Constitution asserted that India is a secular nation.
The factors that make India a secular state are as mentioned below :
- There is no official religion in India. Our Constitution does not give a special status to any religion as has been done in Sri Lanka (Buddhism), Pakistan (Islam) and England (Christianity).
- The Constitution provides to all individuals and communities freedom to profess, preach and practice their own religion. It grants the right to establish and maintain their educational institutions.
- The Constitution prohibits discrimination on the grounds of religion.
- The Constitution allows the state to intervene in the matters of religion in order to ensure equality within religious communities. For example, it bans untouchability. The state could also help religious communities by giving aid to educational institutions run by them.
Thus, in India secularism is not just an ideology of some parties or persons. This idea constitutes one of the foundations of our country. The makers of our Constitution were aware that communalism was and continues to be one of the major challenges to democracy in India. Hence^they chose the model of a secular state. A secular constitution like ours is necessary along with countering communal prejudices and propaganda.
Describe features of caste inequalities in India.
Why is caste system in India different from other societies ?
The main features of caste system in India are as mentioned below :
- Caste division is special to India. It is different from other societies because here hereditary occupational division was sanctioned by rituals.
- Members of same caste group used to form a social community that practiced the same
or similar occupation.
- The members of a community used to marry within the caste group and did not eat with members from other caste groups.
- People of lower caste were subjected to inhuman and discriminatory treatment. Sometime a caste of a person, becomes a curse for life for none of his fault. Thus, caste system was based on exclusion of and discrimination against the ‘outcaste groups’. They were called untouchables. That is why political leaders and social reformers like Jotiba Phule, Gandhiji, B.R. Ambedkar and Periyar Ramaswami Naicker advocated and worked to establish a society in which caste inequalities are absent.
Explain reasons for the declining of caste system in India. [CBSE 2016-17]
Assess the circumstances prevalent in contemporary India which are responsible for bringing about a change in the caste system.
Why the caste barriers are breaking down in India ? Explain any five reasons.
The reasons for breaking down of caste hierarchy are as mentioned below :
- Urbanisation : In urban areas, people do not bother who is walking along next to us on a street or eating at the next table in a restaurant. There is a shift of population from rural to urban areas.
- Economic development: As a result of economic development, the economic condition of lower castes has improved. They live in the areas where people of upper castes are living in the cities.
- Occupational mobility : There is a shift from one occupation to another, usually when a new generation takes up occupations other than those practiced by their ancestors. This has helped in breaking the caste hierarchy.
- provisions : The Constitution of India too prohibits discrimination on the basis of caste. So we find people of different castes working together in offices. Untouchability is a legal offence. The Constitution laid the foundations of policies to reverse the injustices of the caste system.
- The role played by political leaders and social reformers like Jotiba Phule, Mahatma Gandhi, B.R. Ambedkar and Periyar Ramaswami Naicker was important in this direction. Gandhiji called untouchable ‘Harijan’. The efforts of these leaders tried to remove caste-based inequalities from society.
Describe three forms of caste politics in India.
Explain the role of caste in India in politics.
Describe various forms of caste in politics.
Caste is the sole basis of social community. It can take various forms in politics as given below :
- Selection of candidates : At the time of election, political parties select their candidates on the basis of caste of the voters in a constituency so that they may muster necessary support to win elections.
- Formation of governments : At the time of formation of government or Council of Ministers, effort is made to have representatives from all castes and communities.
- Appeal to voters : During election campaign appeals are made to voters to cast their votes in favour of the candidate of their own caste. Some political parties are known to favour some castes and are seen as their representatives.
- Effect of Universal Adult Franchise : Universal adult franchise and the principle of one-person-one vote compelled political leaders to gear up to the task of mobilising and securing political support. It also brought new consciousness among the people of castes that were hitherto treated as inferior and low.
- Formation of political parties : Political parties are also formed on the basis of caste to attract the voters in the elections. The BSP in UP, DMK and AIDMK are examples of such political parties.
Assess the influence of politics on caste system.
How caste is politicised ? Explain any three points.
Describe the ways in which politics influences the caste system and caste identities.
Politics influences the caste system and caste identities in the following ways :
- Each caste group tries to become bigger by incorporating within it neighbouring castes or sub-castes which were earlier excluded from it.
- In the age of coalition politics, various caste groups enter into a coalition with other castes or communities. They enter into a dialogue and negotiate in order to win the election. For example, in May 2002, BSP in UP entered into an agreement with BJP and formed a coalition government there.
- Backward’ and ‘forward’ caste groups : Now new caste groups known as ‘backward’ and ‘forward’ caste groups have emerged in political field.Thus, caste plays different roles in politics.
Describe advantages and disadvantages of the political expression of caste differences.
(1) Advantages of the political expression of caste differences are as mentioned below :
- The caste-politics in India has helped Dalits and OBCs to gain better access to decision making.
- Several political and non-political organisations have come forward in support of particular castes. They have demanded to end discrimination against them. Their demands include more dignity for them, more access to land, resources and opportunities.
(2) Disadvantages of the political expression of caste differences are as mentioned below :
- It can divert attention from other pressing issues like poverty, development and corruption.
- In some cases caste division leads to tensions, conflict and even violence.
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