## Political Science Class 11 Important Questions with Answers Chapter Wise

Political Science Class 11 Important Questions with Answers Chapter Wise: Here we are providing CBSE Important Extra Questions for Class 11 Political Science Chapter Wise Pdf download of Indian Constitution at Work, Political Theory in Hindi and English Medium. Students can get Class 11 Political Science NCERT Solutions, Political Science Class 11 Important Extra Questions with Answers designed by subject expert teachers.

## CBSE Class 11 Political Science Important Extra Questions and Answers Chapter Wise Pdf

Important Questions for Class 11 Political Science Chapter Wise: Class 11 Political Science Extra Questions Part A Indian Constitution at Work

Important Questions of Political Science Class 11: Political Theory Class 11 Extra Questions Part B Political Theory

We hope the given CBSE Important Questions of Political Science Class 11 Chapter Wise Pdf download of Indian Constitution at Work, Political Theory in Hindi and English Medium will help you. If you have any queries regarding NCERT Class 11 Political Science Extra Important Questions and Answers, drop a comment below and we will get back to you at the earliest.

### FAQ’s on Class 11 Political Science Important Questions

Question 1.
How do I learn class 11 political science?

Firstly, read the text throughout the chapters. Secondly, prepare short notes with important topics. Once you understand all the important topics, prepare class 11 political science Important Questions and Answers. Get full marks by preparing all the important questions.

Question 2.
How do I prepare for political science for class 11th?

Before you begin your preparation, prepare all the important questions and answers of political science for class 11th. Read out all the questions and answers available on our page to score good marks in the exam.

Question 3.
Does CBSE repeat the Political Science Class 11 Important Questions in board exams?

Yes, CBSE repeats the Class 11 Political Science Important Questions in board exams. Therefore, read all the important questions along with answers available on this page. Effective preparation will give you better results in the exam.

Question 4.
What are some tips to complete political science for Class 11?

Firstly, note down the syllabus. Then, read out all the concepts. Prepare notes with important questions and answers. Repeat all the questions and answers till you get a grip on all the topics.

## Report Writing Class 11 Format, Examples, Samples, Topics

A report is an official/semiofficial piece of writing which involves giving information about an occurrence, an event or an investigation. By its nature, a report has to be

• Factual
• Concise
• Objective, and
• Free from any bias

Report Writing Format, Examples, Samples

The writer of the report must state only the happenings and occurrences in sequential order. He/She does not have the freedom to express his/her opinions or conclusions. Similarly, elaborations, descriptions, and irrelevant matter cannot be included.

This grammar section explains English Grammar in a clear and simple way. There are example sentences to show how the language is used. Students can also read NCERT Solutions for Class 11 English to get good marks in CBSE Board Exams.

## Report Writing Class 11 Format, Examples, Samples, Topics

A newspaper report must be comprehensive but brief; factual yet interesting.

Hence factual reporting is an actual coverage of an event. It is a brief review of a situation or a process that includes only the relevant points and information. It is usually written in the third person and in indirect speech. The passive voice is used. The language used is neutral and figurative. Ornamental language is avoided. The content should include when, where, why and how of the topic to be written about.

A newspaper report has all the following qualities:

• It has to have an appropriate language.
• Since the events being reported are in the recent past, the past indefinite, past continuous, and past perfect tenses are used.
• The language used is formal.
The passive voice is preferred.
‘Journalese’ or journalistic vocabulary is used:
(a) “according to sources”/according to a spokesman”;
(b) Words like ‘murderer’, ‘smuggler’, etc. are preceded by “suspected/alleged’.
• There should be a logical development of ideas, i.e., causes/reasons, effects, or consequences.
• It should be comprehensive and reflect the opinions of people. It should contain views of all the sides involved.
• Personal pronouns are to be avoided.

The report for a school magazine follows the same format as a newspaper report but the language is semi-formal. The writer’s name and class are mentioned just below the heading/title of the report.

Points to remember (for news report)

• A news report should have a headline, date, and place of origin of the news.
• It should carry the byline/name of the reporter.
• It should contain only relevant information.

Points to remember (for first-person accounts)

• Describe the incident objectively.
• The description must be logical and in sequence.

Points to remember (for factual description)

• Be objective.
• The presentation should be logical and systematic.

Points to remember (for a factual description of the process)

• Give a step–by–step account of the activity, experiment, and procedure. It is essential to provide a heading and promoting the reporter’s name is essential.

Every news article has a headline to attract the attention of the reader. The headline must state the topic of the news in a strong, short phrase or statement.

• catchy
• brief – leave out articles, prepositions, etc. where possible and use abbreviations/shortened word – forms.

Byline
Since this is your report, you need to let the reader know who wrote it. The line with your name on it is called the “byline” because it tells by whom the article is written. Write the word “by” followed by your first and last name. On the next line, write the name of your school and city.

A lead paragraph usually answers the questions: Who, What, Where, When, Why.

• name or names of the person or thing this news is about
• the place where this incident happened
• the day, date, and time of the day when it happened.
• details of the incident
• reasons why the incident happened

Paragraph 2
Eyewitness accounts add to the authenticity of the news. Also, they may interest the reader. Include some quotes from the eyewitnesses’ comments. Also, describe what they felt about the incident.

Paragraph 3
Describe the future course of action is planned.
Note: Remember to use simple, clear but formal language.
Include the following details in your report:

 Event/Function Factual details: name/nature of the event occasion organisers date, time, venue sequence/details of the event the detail is about Chief Guest/judges/participants highlights of the event: Chief Guest’s message vote of thanks conclusion of the event comment(s) on the quality of the program
 Accidents what happened where, when, how people/vehicles involved loss of life and property details of rescue and relief operations the accident scene details of casualties—dead, injured, hospitalised inquiry ordered (if required) grants to victims’ kin/injured (if required) comment by a reporter on similar tragedies/accidents

Reporting incidents and occasions for Magazine/Newsletter

♦ Reports: School Magazine:

Question 1.
Your school invited the parents of Kalpana Chawla to be the chief guests at a special function organised to pay tribute to the Indian woman astronaut. As the Activities Editor of your school magazine, write a report in 150-200 words on the event. You are Rishiraj/Rajshri Verma. (10 marks)

1. Remembering Kalpana Chawla
2. Our school organised a function on 5th April, 20XX to pay tribute to India’s great space traveller Kalpana Chawla who became a martyr to the cause of space research.
3. Kalpana Chawla’s parents, Mrs & Mr. Chawla were the chief guests. The function began sharply at 9.00 a.m. when Mr. Chawla tearfully garlanded the portrait of his illustrious daughter. Solemn devotional songs were sung. The highlight of the programme was Mr. Chawla’s speech in which he narrated the incidents of Kalpana’s childhood and years in Punjab Engineering College. The Principal declared that our newly constructed library would be named after her. At the end of the programme, an open session was held where the students could interact with the proud parents of Kalpna Chawla.
4. It was an inspiring as well as a touching event. The programme concluded with a vote of thanks by our Vice-Principal.
5. Rishiraj Verma XIB

♦ Analysis:

1. Heading: This summarises the main event-paying tribute to Kalpana Chawla-which is the subject of this report. The heading should be underlined. Every word should begin with a capital letter.
2. The first paragraph is introductory. It gives factual information about the event what it was and when it was organised.
3. The second paragraph gives details of the event. It tells us about the

• Chief guest
• Sequence of happenings, and
• Main Highlights

4. The third paragraph gives the conclusion.
5. The writer’s name, class, and section are stated at the end of the report. These can be written immediately below the heading too.
6. Notice that no irrelevant information is given.
7. The language throughout is simple, direct, and formal. No figures of speech or ornamentation of language is used.

Question 2.
You are Samidha/ Ajay of Jan Kalyan School Delhi. Your school organised an inter-school debate competition last month. Write a report of this event in 150-200 words for your school magazine giving details like schedule, venue, topic, winners etc. [NCT 2018]

Inter-School Debate

Our school, Jan Kalyan School, was the venue for an interschool debate. It was a very successful event due to the enthusiastic participation schools.

The topic chosen was interesting, ‘Nothing is Permanent Except Change’. The judges have known personalities from education, media, and journalism. The debate started sharp at 9 am in the school auditorium. Intelligent and lively expression of points and counterpoints by the speakers charged the atmosphere. There was rebuttal from the audience to test the speakers further. The judges had a tough job picking up the best from the best. The announcement of results brought great cheers and some disappointments.

After the debate the guests were served refreshments. Thus our annual event came to a happy end.

Samidha
11A

Question 3.
Write a report to be published in your school magazine, describing how the Annual Day, was celebrated in your school this year. You are Puneet/Puneeta of XI E. [150-200 words] [NCT 2017]

Annual Day Celebrations

Annual Day of our school is something to be seen and experienced. Parents and students await the day eagerly and teachers and students work tirelessly to make the day a success. The Annual Day of 20XX proved itself worth the labour in abundant measure.

The Annual Day was planned meticulously. The Primary section presented Art and Science Exhibitions throughout the day for parents. Junior School had their Sports Day in the afternoon from 3 pm to 5 pm. Senior school presented a two-hour long dance drama. Meera Bai in the school auditorium from 7 pm to 8 pm. Some parents had children in all three sections, most had in two. The Director of the Primary Department, the Head Master of junior school and the principle of senior school looked after their Chief Guests respectively. Many guests and parents congratulated the children, teachers and the management on their performances and arrangements.

Ketan Khare
11E

Question 4.
You are Mohit/Mamta, the Secretary of Eco Club of your school. Recently you celebrated “Tree Plantation Week”. Write a report for your school magazine in 150-200 words. [NCT 2015]

Tree Plantation Week

We celebrated ‘Tree Plantation Week’ on 27 July 20XX. The members of the ‘Eco Club’ were congratulated profusely. I, as the president of the club, was satisfied that my efforts had borne fruit. We had planned to involve all the students of classes 5 to 12 in some way or the other. Each class was asked to do some research and choose a plant. Each class was allotted a patch of land in the school garden which they had to prepare according to the needs of their chosen plant.

On 27 July, our chief guest Ms. Kiran Bedi arrived promptly at 9 a.m. She was received by members of the Eco Club and welcomed by our Principal. She spoke briefly and encouragingly to the students about the importance of trees. She was then led to plant a ‘neem’ sapling.

While the chief guest was served refreshments, students of classes 5 to 12 planted their saplings. The chief guest, our Principal and the students were very pleased with the programme.

Mohit

Question 5.
The ‘Environment Club’ of your school organised a cleanliness drive to keep the school campus and the locality clean. The students cleaned the classrooms, corridors, playground,s etc. and also organised a rally to create awareness among the masses about the importance of cleanliness. Write a report to be published in the school magazine about the drive-in 150-200 words describing the efforts made by the students to make it a success. You are Anjani/Ankita of Class XI, Ajanta Public School, Delhi.

Cleanliness Drive

As part of the Gandhi Jayanti, the Environment Club organised a cleanliness drive from 1st to 7th October. The drive encompassed the school and the neighbouring locality. Students were given incentives to keep their classes clean. A panel of judges picked up the five cleanest classes and awarded them prizes. Groups of students, by rotation, kept the area near the canteen litter free and the playgrounds clean.

The-high point the drive was our work in our locality. We organised a rally which was addressed by the President and Vice President of the Club. Groups of students went out to clean the neighbourhood.

‘The Environment Club of our school is doing commendable work. The President, Anupam Verma is extremely enthusiastic about environmental projects.’

The Environment Club conveyed its message both by word and deed.

Anjani
XIA

Question 6.
As the student leader of your school, you have been given the responsibility of organising a “poster making competition” on the occasion of Independence Day. Write a report in 150-200 words describing how you plan to go about it. You are Raman Gill of Adarsh Vidhya Mandir, Karnal. You may use the following suggestions:

 Notice on a noticeboard – participants – announce topic – give rules – painting material – appoint judges – select venue – describe the event – results – prize distribution by Chief Guest.

Poster Making Competition

I had to organise a poster making competition for the Independence Day celebration next week. I put up a notice announcing the event and inviting participation from the students of classes IX and XI. The response was quite good. Twenty students from class IX and twenty from class XI were found eligible by our teachers.

The competition was held on 12th August. The students were given three topics and had to prepare a poster on one of them. Paper was provided but the students had to bring their own painting material. Three judges were to pick the winners. The venue was the Artroom. Students were given one hour for the poster which had to have one picture in four colours and a text in 50 words.

The students produced excellent work. The judges picked up the three best entries. The Chief Guest gave away the prizes to the winners.

Raman Gill
XIA

Question 7.
Your school organised a seminar on ‘Climate Change and its Impact on India’. Eminent speakers were invited to deliver lectures on far-reaching and disastrous consequences of greenhouse gases, increased carbon dioxide emissions, ozone depletion and Arctic ice melting. There was also a question and answer session. Write a report on the event for your school magazine. You are Roshni/ Ravi of Deep Public School. (150-200 words)

Climate Change and its Impact in India

On July 20th, 20XX, our school organized a seminar for the students of classes IX to XII. Our Principal had invited an eminent scientist and an environmentalist to create awareness of the crucial issue of ‘Climate Change and its Impact in India’ among students.

The programme started at 9.30 a.m. sharp. The scientist, Dr R. Narain, and the environmentalist, Dr Neeraj Ravi, were welcomed by the Head Boy. After the welcome speeches, Dr N. Ravi gave a power-point presentation on climate change, global warming, melting of glaciers and rising of sea level. Many of us did not know that CFC gas found in aerosol sprays was that deadly. This was followed by questions and answers on greenhouse gases, C02 emissions, ozone depletion and the melting of polar ice caps.

It was an extremely useful seminar for which we are thankful to our Principal.

Roshni
XIC

Question 8.
Recently, a cultural programme was arranged by your school with the help of the local artists of the city for raising funds to help an association with handicapped children in your city. Write a factual description in 150-200 words for publication in the newsletter of your school.

Fund Raising Programme

25th January was a memorable day for our school and the neighbourhood. On the eve of the Republic Day, we hosted a cultural programme for helping ‘Samartha’, an organization that works for the handicapped children of the financially weaker sections in our neighbourhood.

We engaged local musicians, singers and bandleaders to present a variety programme. The best singers and dancers of our school also prepared some items. We launched a massive publicity campaign with posters and visits to local colonies.

Finally, on the evening of 25th January at 5 p.m., the programme began. The Education Minister was the chief guest. We presented a cheque for ₹ 2 lakh and two wheelchairs to ‘Samartha’. We hope Our endeavor will brighten the lives of some challenged persons.

Rohini
XI C

Question 9.
On the occasion of the inaugural function of the 17th New Delhi Book Fair, your school was invited to participate in the Book March from India Gate to Pragati Maidan. Write a report in 150-200 words for publication in your school magazine about the March describing the participation of several schools. You are Shikha/Shikhar of class XI.

The Book of March

Our school was invited to participate in the Book March on 4th February from India Gate to Pragati- Maidan on the inauguration of the 17th New Delhi Book Fair.

This was a unique way of spreading love for reading among people. We prepared banners and placards with messages like ‘Books Give Knowledge, ‘Books Give Pleasure’ and ‘Books Are Our Best Friends’.

About fifty students were chosen from our school. We reached India Gate at 8:30 a.m. and were asked to lead the march. About twenty schools participated. At the end of the march, at Gate No. 2 of Pragati Maidan, we were given refreshments. Many people stopped to watch us and read our banners, so I think we achieved our purpose.

Shikha
XIA

Question 10.
You are Sahil/Shruti of Government Senior Secondary School, New Delhi. Recently you got training in ‘FIRST AID’ by a local branch of the ‘International FIRST-AID Organisation’ as part of the Universal Health Programme. Eminent doctors from the prestigious hospitals provided practical training to Class XI students. Free ‘FIRST AID KIT’ was also given to your school. Write a report in 150-200 words for your school magazine on the training received by you.

Training in First Aid

The students of Class XI, Government Senior Secondary School, New Delhi received training in first aid. The programme was organised by the local branch of the International First Aid Organisation, under the Universal Health Programme.

The training programme was held in Ram Manohar Lohia Hospital from May 20 to 26. In the week-long training, we were given instructions in hygiene and patient care. Elementary skills of administering injections, measuring temperature and blood pressure were taught. In the last two days, we were taken to the children’s ward and given practical training to bandage the arms and the legs of babies.

In the end, each one of us was given a first aid kit free of charge. It was a useful and enjoyable experience.

Sahil
XID

Question 11.
Labour Day was celebrated in a unique way in your school. All workers who help in the running of the school like peons, gardeners and security guards and those who help to keep the campus clean, were honoured in the morning assembly. The Principal spoke about the dignity of labour. Children presented items reflecting similar sentiments. At the end of the programme, each one of the guests was given a gift. Write a report on this special assembly for your school magazine in 150-200 words. You are Cherie/Chetan of XIC.

Labour Day Celebrations

Very few schools have May 1 on their calendar for celebration. Our school is unique in this respect for we celebrate May 1, Labour Day, with great fervour.

This year, the celebrations were on the theme “The Dignity of Labour”. All the workers like the peons, gardeners, security guards, etc. were honoured in the morning assembly. The master of ceremonies invited each one by name to come and take his place on the stage. The Prefects presented bouquets to each one of them. This was followed by a song, a group dance and a short skit reflecting the importance of manual labour.

The Principal then gave an inspiring speech on the work done by them. He presented an umbrella to each one of the workers. They were visibly moved. The seniormost peon offered thanks to the Principal and the staff.

The assembly had a great impact on the students. They understood the valuable contribution made by the workers.

Cherie
XIC

Question 12.
The Golden Jubilee celebration of your school has just ended. It was a year-long programme featuring an Interschool debating contest, a play festival, a fun fair, an exhibition, special programmes for ex-students and parents and concluded with a grand cultural programme. As Mayank/Maya Jain of XI-C, write a report in 150-200 words for publication in your school magazine.

Golden Jubilee Celebration

Our school completed fifty years of its existence on 1st Jan. 20XX. Year-long celebrations were planned-Organising a committee made up of Principal-Some staff members and the students’ council. School activities-Exhibitions of art and craft, and science-Fancy-dress and dance competition for a primary sections-A special issue of the school magazine. Inter-school debate contest, a play festival-

Special programmes for ex-students-concluding function-a highly appreciated dance-drama ‘Meera’.
(Develop these hints into complete sentences.)

Mayank Jain
XIC

Question 13.
Amrapali Saran is the Secretary of the Cultural Society of ABC School, Janakpuri. Vanamahotsava was Celebrated in her school on 24 August. She is asked to write a report of the programme. Write this report in 150-200 words, with all the necessary details about the programme, participants, cleanliness, tree plantation, dances, etc.

Vanamahotsava

Vanamahotsava was celebrated in our school on 24 August 20XX. The Principal had arranged for four saplings to be planted on that day in our school garden.

In the morning assembly, there was a speech by the Head Girl on the importance of trees in our life. Immediately after the assembly, the four saplings were planted by our guests-army officers who . had fought the Kargil war. The best part of the celebration was that every child was a participant in some way or the other. Many had made posters, some had joined the cleanliness drive while some ‘ others performed dances.

It was a very successful programme. All the children learnt about the importance of trees.

Amrapali Saran
XIA

Question 14.
Pooja is the Secretary of the Cultural Club of ABC School, Sarojini Nagar. She is asked to write a report on the Children’s Day celebrations in her school for the school magazine. Write a report in 150-200 words with all the necessary details about the programme, chief guest, and participants.

Children’s Day Celebration

Children’s Day, 14 November 20XX, was celebrated with great fervour in our school. The day began with a special assembly to honour ‘Chacha Nehru’ in whose memory the day is celebrated. There were songs and speeches and poems expressing the great love Nehruji had for the children.

The special feature of the day’s celebration was the presence of about fifty children from a nearby’ slum. They were gifted books and clothes. Some games had been organised for them. We were amazed to hear of their hopes and aspirations. They were all eager to pursue studies. Many of us resolved to make at least one under priviledged child literate. The children were given a box of sweets each at the end of the programme. Their happy smiles made our day.

Pooja
XIC

Question 15.
To commemorate ‘Conservation Day’ and to sensitise students to global issues, HT PACE hosted the annual on-the-spot inter-school essay writing competition at Sanskriti School, Chanakyapuri, New Delhi. As the Secretary of the English Literary Society, write a factual description of the event in 150-200 words for publication in the school newsletter.

Conservation Day

HT PACE organized the annual On the Spot Interschool Essay Writing Competition at Sanskriti School, Chanakyapuri, New Delhi last Saturday, which was ‘Conservation Day’. The purpose was to sensitise students to the global issue of conservation of our flora and fauna – our environment. There were participants from about 20 schools. The contest began at 8.30 a.m.

The participants were led to a hall and were given roll numbers and sheets for writing. The topic was “Conservation is Our Sacred Duty’. Some pictures were also displayed to give the participants some idea of the subject. At the end of 30 minutes, the answer sheets were collected.

Later in the school hall, the chief guests, Mr. R.N. Verma, the noted conservationist, spoke to all the participants.

The result was declared 10 days after the event. The prize-winning school was awarded a trip to ‘Sariska Tiger Reserve’. Five individual prizes were given.

Ambica
XIC

♦ Reports for Newspapers:

Question 1.
Recently Metro Rail was inaugurated in Delhi by the Prime Minister. You, Rajat/Rajni were an eyewitness to the inauguration ceremony of “Metro Rail – A Dream Come True.” Write a report for publication in a newspaper in 150-200 words about the event.

1. Metro Rail – A Dream Come True
2. by Rajat Khare
3. 25th Dec., 20XX, Delhi
4. On 24th Dec. 20XX, Delhi took a giant step towards becoming a modern city, with the inauguration of Metro Rail by the Prime Minister, Shri Atal Bihari Vajpayee. Being an employee of the Metro Rail, I was able to witness the grand event.
5. Tis Hazari station had been decorated beautifully. Only VIPs were to travel on the inaugural –
run of 7 km between Tis Hazari and Shahdara. The Prime Minister arrived on time. The Metro train, brand new and shiny, looked festive with floral decoration.
6. The engine driver Mr. XYZ wore a grey-suit and was fully aware of the honour of driving the city’s first Metro train. A huge crowd had gathered to witness the event.

At 11 a.m. sharp, the train was signalled off. The glistening Metro train set out on its smooth journey, much to the pride and happiness of the builders of the system and the citizens of Delhi.

♦ Analysis:

2. Byline: gives the writer’s name.
3. Dateline: gives the place of occurrence and the date of receiving the report.
4. Paragraph 1 states the main event which is reported. It gives information about
• The date
• The event
• The celebrity was at the centre of the event.
5. Paragraph 2 elaborates on the event and gives factual information about it.
• The venue
• The guests
• The driver of metro train who was an important person that day
6. The concluding paragraph rounds up the event at a high point – the setting out of the Metro A train.

Question 2.
Recently, the protests of the property owners against the demolition drive by the MCD in Delhi brought the normal life of the city to a standstill. Rioting, stoning, and attack on government property were witnessed all over the city. As Nirman/Nimanshi, write a report for publication in a newspaper in 150-200 words.

Demolition Drive Continues
by Nirtnan

New Delhi, 14th April: The MCD continued the demolition drive on the third day today in the Rohini area of north-west Delhi. Bulldozers were at work demolishing the commercial establishments in Sector 8 of Rohini at 10 a.m.

Following the orders of the High Court, the MCD pulled down elegant sarees and furniture shops in sector 8. The police force was present in considerable numbers to assist the MCD authorities. The traders, however, were angry and expressed their rage by coming out on the streets along with women and children. They threw stones at the bulldozers and drills and shouted slogans against the MCD and the Chief Minister.

The demolition drive is expected to continue for some more days.

Question 3.
‘Traffic week’ is being celebrated in your city. Within the first two days, the police have booked over three hundred violations. Lane breaking, jumping red light and speed violations top the list. Underage drivers are the main culprits. As Subhash/Shalini Shourie, write a report in 150-200 words for publication in a newspaper.

Traffic Week
by Subhash Shourie

New Delhi, 13th Sept., The ‘Traffic Week’ currently being celebrated by Delhi Police promises to be effective in controlling the traffic woes of the city.

In the first two days, over three hundred violations have been registered for various offences. Maximum offences were of lane jumping. These violations were detected using special devices with the electronic eye fitted at strategic locations. Jumping red-lights and breaking speed limits are next in frequency. These violations cause accidents to pedestrians. High on the list of offences is rash driving by underaged drivers behind the wheels without driving license.

The police authorities are encouraged by the success of the first two days.

Question 4.
A schoolboy of fifteen displayed remarkable nobility and heroism in rescuing men, women and children trapped in an overturned bus. After rescuing them, he arranged conveyance for them to be taken to nearby hospitals. As Nikhil/Neelam Gupta, write a report for publication in a newspaper in 150-200 words.

School Boy Saves Lives
by Nikhil Gupta

Lucknow, 7th of April. Fifteen-year-old Aakash saved two lives. He rescued people trapped in an overturned bus.

8 p.m. Aakash returning from tuition-came to a lonely dark spot-heard cries-found bus on its side-probably skidded-Passengers trapped-some came out of windows and were pulling out people. Aakash climbed in from the driver’s seat-carried a small child out-gave artificial respiration-brought out an old lady, a heart patient-stopped a passing auto-rickshaw and took them to the hospital. (Develop these hints into complete sentences.)

Question 5.
You are a press reporter. Recently, the Railways cancelled a few trains due to floods. Passengers were stranded at the New Delhi Railway Station. Write a report in 150-200 words highlighting the problems faced by the passengers.

Mumbai Trains Cancelled

New Delhi, 27th Aug. All trains on Delhi-Baroda-Mumbai routes have been cancelled due to flash floods in Gujarat. Some trains have been diverted. Railway officials had no idea when the trains via Baroda will be resumed.

Flash floods hitting Gujarat region have covered the railway tracks with two feet of water at certain places. A span of 100 metres of railway track has been washed away, resulting in the cancellation of Rajdhani, Paschim Express and some other trains on this route.

New Delhi Station is crowded with stranded passengers. They have no choice but to wait for the resumption of train services. Food, water and toilet facilities at the station are inadequate.

Question 6.
You participated in the Republic Day celebrations on 26 January 20XX at the Parade Ground, Sector 17, Chandigarh. Describe the event in 150-200 words mentioning the following points:

 – date – time – venue – people who gathered – chief guest – events – honours given – National Anthem.

Republic Day Celebrations
by XYZ (XIA)

Chandigarh, 27th January 20XX Republic Day was celebrated in great style yesterday. The main function was held at the Parade Ground.

The parade was inspected by the Governor of Punjab, Mr X.Y.Z. At 7.30 a.m. The National Flag was unfurled with the singing of the National Anthem. Twenty one guns boomed in salute. The Governor took the salute of battalions of the police force. After the march-past, gallantry awards were given to the police personnel for outstanding acts of bravery. People’s hearts were touched when the twelve-year-old son of a deceased policeman received the posthumous award.

The crowd was cheerful and full of patriotic fervour.

Question 7.
You are a press reporter. You have interviewed different passengers of a hijacked plane to know their experiences. Sum up their experiences in 150-200 words as a report for a newspaper.

Hostages Rescued
by Ravi Narayan

New Delhi, 28th Oct. The forty eight hour hijack drama came to an end with the heroic rescue of the hijacked passengers by the Black Cat commandos.

The two hundred and four passengers of the ill-fated Calcutta-New Delhi flight No. 1C-104 had to undergo tremendous stress and tension. Mr Bhagat, a business class passenger, said that he was amazed when a hijacker across the aisle suddenly pulled out a gun and informed the passengers that the plane had been hijacked. The details of the drama are slowly emerging. In the economy class, three hijackers took positions in the aisle with their machine guns aimed at the passengers.

Mrs Sheela Bhatnagar, another passenger heaved a sigh of relief when the passengers were rescued by the Black Cat commandos ending their ordeal.

Question 8.
Look at the verbal input given below:

• My first day in school
• nervous, lonely
• enter new classroom
• unable to solve easy questions
• teacher encouraged to be confident
• new friends in new school

On the basis of the input given above, draft a report titled ‘My First Day’ in 150-200 words.

My First Day
by Ashok Singh 11A

On the basis of my CBSE results of Ashok Singh 11 A class 10, I got admission in a prestigious school of Delhi in class 11. Coming from a small neighbouring town, I was a bit nervous. I felt the students, teachers and the environment would be too ‘hi-fi’.

On the first day, I was quite nervous surprisingly, as I was the topper of my old school. I was nervous, and quite friendless. I entered the class and waited for the teacher. It was our English period, my favourite time of the day, and the teacher put a simple question to me. To my utter bewilderment, I found could not answer. Even greater surprise was the smile of encouragement from the teacher. I relaxed and answered the question. The rest of the day went like a dream – All the teachers were supportive and the students suitably impressed with my grades.

## Notice Writing Class 11 Format, Examples, Topics, Exercises

This grammar section explains English Grammar in a clear and simple way. There are example sentences to show how the language is used. NCERT Solutions for Class 11 English will help you to write better answers in your Class 11 exams. Because the Solutions are solved by subject matter experts.

## Notice Writing Class 11 Format, Examples, Topics, Exercises

A notice is a form of written or printed information that can be in the form of an official statement of public importance or a warning in advance, or it can also be used to give information to a segment of people or people at large. The basic purpose is to disseminate information related to various issues or occasions. It is written in a simple and formal language and is always brief and to the point. Notices are given generally in newspapers, magazines, or displayed publicly on the notice board of an organisation. A notice can also be given in the newspaper as an advertisement mainly meant to inform a large number of people, it must be clear and brief. It is more or less like a circular but the major difference is that a circular reaches through a messenger while a notice is displayed either on a noticeboard or in a newspaper column.

The main characteristics of notice writing are:

Notice Writing Format
This includes the word “NOTICE”, date, heading, writer’s name, and designation.

Content:
The content answers the questions ‘what’, ‘where’, ‘when’, ‘how’ etc.

Expression:
This relates to the overall organisation and relevance of the content as well as grammatical accuracy and fluency. An agenda notice includes a detailed list of items or schema of the meeting or the programme.

Points to remember:

• the purpose should be to inform
• it should have a heading
• it should be brief and precise
• it should give all the required information, in a simple language
• the name and designation of the issuing authority should be mentioned
• it should be written in the third person
• it should have a date
• it should look attractive and the word limit should be adhered to

Question 1.
Draft a notice in not more than 50-words for your school notice board, informing the students about the sale of old sports goods of your school. You are Rohini/Rohan the secretary of the sports club of Alka Public School, Indira Nagar Faridabad. [NCT 2018]

 Alka Public School, Indira Nagar, Faridabad 20.04.20XX Notice Sale. The Sports Department is offering old sports equipment for sale to the students of the school Cricket, tennis, badminton, table tennis, football, basketball and hockey is available.Sale will be held on Sunday 28-04-20XX from 10 am to 1 pm. Students should bring their identity cards. Rohan Secretary, Sports Club.

Question 2.
As Secretary of the Activity Club of your school, draft a notice for the school noticeboard, informing students of the Inter-class Quiz contest being organised by the school. You are Nafisa/Pankaj. [Word limit: 50] [NCT 2017]

 St. Teresa Secondary School, Lucknow 13 August 20XX Notice Inter-class Quiz Contest The annual Inter-Class Quiz will be held on 4th September at two levels – classes 7 & 8 and 9 & 10. The teams will be selected on the basis of the preliminary written tests. Those interested should give their names to the undersigned by 8 August 20XX. Nafisa Rehman Secretary Activity Club

Question 3.
You are Amit/Anita, Head Boy/Head Girl of your school. You are organising a career counselling session for class XI and XII students of your school. Write a notice giving details to be displayed on your noticeboard in about 50 words. [NCT 2016]

 Gandhi Senior Secondary School, Rohini, Delhi 28 July 20XX Notice Career Counselling Session The students of classes 11 and 12 are hereby informed that a career counselling session has been organized for them on 4 August 20XX from 11 a.m. to 1 p.m. Science students will proceed to the Auditorium and commerce students to Lecture Theatre No. 1 at 10:45 a.m. Attendance is compulsory. Amit Pandey Head Boy

Question 4.
You are Man/Mani, secretary of the History Club of K.V. Sr. Sec. School, Badodhra. Draft a notice in not more than 50 words informing the students of class XI and XII about a proposed tour to Rajasthan during the coming summer vacations. [NO 2015]

 K.Y Senior Secondary School, Badodhra 5 April 20XX Notice Rajasthan Tour  This is to inform the students of classes 11 and 12 of a trip to Rajasthan from 12 to 17 May 20XX. The trip will cover Jaipur, Udaipur, Jaisalmer and Bikaner. Those who wish to join the trip should submit written permission from their parents and a draft for ₹ 3000 latest by 12 April 20XX to the Vice Principal. Mani Secretary, History Club

Question 5.
You are Amit/Amita, Head Boy/Girl of your school (Zenith Public School). Write a notice for your school noticeboard requesting entries from students for Britannia Quiz Contest to be held in your School. [NCT 2014]

 Zenith Public School, Agra 20 February 20xx Notice Selection for Quiz Contest The students of classes from 9 to 12 may give their names for participating in Britannia Quiz Contest to be held on 25 March 20XX. The applicants should have participated in the inter-house Quiz Contest. The selection will be held on 28 February 20XX. R.K. Singh Vice Principal

Question 6.
As the Principal of DAV, Mausam Vihar, Delhi, write a notice informing the students about the special coaching in cricket, basketball, and tennis during the summer vacation. (50 words) [NCT 2019]

 DAV, Mausam Vihar, Delhi 20-April 20XX Notice Sports Coaching During Summer Vacation This is to inform all the students of the six-week coaching programme in cricket, basketball, and tennis starting from 16 May 20XX at 6:30 a.m. every morning. State-level coaches will be conducting the sessions. A nominal fee of 200 per game will be charged. Those interested should contact Mr. S.R. Vyas, HOD, Physical Education for further details. R.V. Sharma Principal

Question 7.
As the librarian of your school, write a notice in about 50 words informing the students of the penalty for losing or damaging the books issued to them.

 New Age School, Rohini 10 July 20XX Notice Penalty For Losing or Damaging the Books This is to inform all the students that (i) a fine of ? 2 per day will be charged if a book is not returned on the due date; (ii) the library card will be withdrawn if the returned book is found tom or damaged; : (iii) The full price will be recovered from the student if a book is lost. Shalini Singh Librarian

Question 8.
As the Principal, write a notice in about 50 words informing the prefects, monitors, and other discipline in-charge students of a Leadership Training Camp being organised by the school.

 A.P.J. School, Vasant Kunj 10 April 20xx Notice Leadership Training Camp A leadership training camp is being organised on 15 April 20XX from 9:00 a.m. to 1:00 p.m. All: prefects, class monitors, bus and line monitors shall attend this camp. The programme will include the following: Leadership Training Workshop – 9 : 00 a.m. to 11 : 00 a.m. Refreshment Break – 11 :00 a.m. to 11 : 30 a.m. Question and Answer Session with Experts – 11 : 30 a.m. to 12 : 00 p.m. S.K. Gulati Principal

Question 9.
As the head of the Physical Education Department, write a notice in about 50 words informing the students about the selection of athletes for the coming Zonal Athletic meet.

 Bal Bharti Public School, Noida 10 April 20xx Notice Selection of Athletes for Zonal Athletic Meet This is to inform the students of classes 5 to 8 that the selection of the athletes for the coming zonal athletic meet for sub-juniors and juniors will be done as per the timetable given below. 15 April 20XX (Sub-Junior events) 100 m and 200 m races, long jump, swimming: 7:00 a.m. to 9:30 a.m. 17 April 20XX (Junior events) 100 m 200 m, 4 x 100 m relay race, long jump, high jump, swimming: 7:00 a.m. to 9:00 a.m. B S Batra Head, Physical Education Department

Question 10.
As the Director, Primary Section, write a notice in about 50 words for the children announcing the programme for the Children’s Day.

 Ramjas School, R.K. Puram 2 November 20XX Notice Children’s Day Programme The school is arranging a special programme for you on Children’s Day, i.e. November 14. You can come in fancy dress and win a prize. There will be games for you. Kindly give the circular to your parents so that they can dress you beautifully for the Fancy Dress Competition. Do not bring your books on November 14. Monisha Mohanty Director Primary School

## NCERT Solutions for Class 11 Chemistry Chapter 1 Some Basic Concepts of Chemistry

These Solutions are part of NCERT Solutions for Class 11 Chemistry. Here we have given NCERT Solutions for Class 11 Chemistry Chapter 1 Some Basic Concepts of Chemistry.

Question 1.
Calculate the molecular mass of the following :
(i) H2O (ii) CO2 (iii) CH4
(i) Molecular mass of H2O : 2 × 1 + 1 × 16 = 18u
(ii) Molecular mass of CO2 : 1 × 12 + 2× 16 = 44 u
(iii) Molecular mass of CH4 : 12 + 4 × 1 = 16 u

Question 2.
Calculate the mass percent of different elements present in sodium sulphate (Na2SO4).
Molecular mass of Na2SO4 = 2 × Atomic mass of Na + Atomic mass of S + 4 × Atomic mass of O
= 2 × 23 + 32 + 4 × 16 = 46 + 32 + 64 = 142 u.
The percentage of different elements present can be calculated as :

NCERT Solutions Class 11 Chemistry Chapter 1 Some Basic Concepts of Chemistry will help to score more marks in CBSE Board Exams.

Question 3.
Determine the empirical formula of an oxide of iron which has 69-9% iron and 30-1% oxygen by mass.
Step I. Calculation of simplest whole number ratios of the elements

The simplest whole number ratios of the different elements are : Fe : O : : 2 : 3
Step II. Writing the empirical formula of the compound.
The empirical formula of the compound = Fe2CO3.

Question 4.
Calculate the amount of carbon dioxide that could be produced when
(i) 1 mole of carbon is burnt in air.
(ii) 1 mole of carbon is burnt in 16 g of dioxygen.
(iii) 2 moles of carbon are burnt in 16 g of dioxygen.
The chemical equation for the combustion of carbon in dioxygen present in air is :

(i) When 1 mole of carbon is burnt in air
1 mole of carbon will form C02 = 1 mol = 44 g
(ii) When 1 mole of carbon is burnt in 16 g of dioxygen
For 1 mole of carbon, dioxygen required = 32 g = 1 mol
But the mass of dioxygen available = 16 g = 1/2 mol .
This means that dioxygen is in limited amount or-it is the limiting reactant.
Since dioxygen and carbon react in the same ratio, therefore mass of CO2 formed = $$\frac { 1 }{ 2 }$$ mol = 22 g
(iii) When 2 moles of carbon are burnt in 16 g of dioxygen
For 2 moles of carbon, dioxygen required = 64 g = 2 mol
But the mass of dioxygen available = 16 g =  $$\frac { 1 }{ 2 }$$ mol
This means that dioxygen is in limited amount or it is the limiting reactant.
∴ Mass of C02 formed =$$\frac { 1 }{ 2 }$$ mol = 22 g

Question 5.
Calculate the mass of sodium acetate (CH3COONa) required to make 500 mL of 0-375 molar aqueous solution. Molar mass of sodium acetate is 82.0 g mol-1.

Question 6.
Calculate the concentration of nitric acid in moles per liter in a sample which has a density of 1.41 g mL-1 and the mass percent of nitric acid in it being 69%.
Mass percent 69 means that 69 g of HNo3 are dissolved in 100 g of the solution.
Mass of solution = 100 g Density of solution = 1.41 g mL-1

Question 7.
How much copper can be obtained from 100 g of copper sulphate (CuSO4)?
The molecular mass of CuSO4 = Atomic mass of Cu + Atomic mass of S + 4 x Atomic mass of O
= 63.5 + 32 + 4 × 16
= 159.5 u
Gram molecular mass of CuSO4 = 159.5 g
Now, 159-5 g of CuSO4 have Cu = 63.5 g
∴ 100 g of CuSO4 have Cu = (63.5 g) × $$\frac { (100 g) }{ (159.5 g) }$$ = 39.81 g

Question 8.
Determine the molecular formula of an oxide of iron in which the mass percent of iron and oxygen are 69.9 and 30.1 respectively.
The empirical formula of the oxide of iron = Fe2O3
(For details, refer to No. 3)
Molecular formula of the oxide of iron = n × Empirical formula
= 1 × (Fe2O3)
= Fe2O3
(Since there is no common factor in Fe2O3, therefore n = 1).

Question 9.
Calculate the average atomic mass of chlorine from the following data: Isotope % Natural Abundance Atomic mass

Question 10.
In three moles of ethane (C2H6), calculate the following:
(i) No. of moles of carbon atoms
(ii) No. of moles of hydrogen atoms No. of molecules of ethane.
(i) 1 mole of C2H6 has moles of carbon atoms= 2 moles
3 moles of C2H6 have moles of carbon atoms= 2 × 3 = 6 moles
(ii) 1 mole of C2H6 has moles of hydrogen atoms = 6 moles
3 moles of C2H6 have moles of hydrogen atoms = 6 × 3 = 18 moles
(iii) 1 mole of C2H6 has molecules = 6.022 × 1023
3 moles of C2H6 have molecules = 6.022 × 1023 x 3 = 1.81 x 1024

Question 11.
What is the concentration of sugar (C12H22O11) in mol L-1 of it are dissolved in enough water to make final volume upto 2 L?
The concentration in mol L-1 means molarity (M).
From the available data, it can be calculated as:
Mass of sugar = 20 g
Molar mass of sugar (C12H22o11) = 12 × 12 + 22 × 1 + 11 × 16 = 342 g mol-1
Volume of solution in litre = 2 L

Question 12.
If the density of methanol is 0.793 kg L-1, what is its volume needed for making 2.5 L of its 0.25 M solution?
Step I. Calculation of the mass of methanol (CH3OH)
Molar mass of methanol (CH3OH) =12 + 4×1 + 16 = 32 g mol-1
Molarity of solution = 0.25 M = 0.25 mol L-1
Volume of solution = 2.5 L

Step II. Calculation of volume of methanol
Mass of methanol = 20 g = 0-002 kg
Density of methanol = 0-793 kg L-1

Question 13.
The pressure is determined as force per unit area of the surface. The SI unit of pressure, pascal is as shown below:
IPa = 1 Nm-2
If the mass of air at sea level is 1034 g, calculate the pressure in pascal.

Question 14.
What is the SI unit of mass? How is it defined?
Kilogram. It is equal to the mass of the prototype of the kilogram. It is in fact, the mass of a platinum block stored at the International Bureau of Weights and Measurements in France.

Question 15.
Match the following prefixes with their multiples

After matching:
micro = 10-6
deca = 10
mega = 106
giga = 109
femto = 10-15

Question 16.
What do you understand by significant figures?
We have seen that every measurement done in the laboratory involves the same error or uncertainty depending upon the limitation of the measuring instrument. In order to report scientific data, the term ‘significant figures’ has been used. According to this, all digits repotted in a given data are certain except the last one which is uncertain or doubtful. For example, let us suppose that the reading as reported by a measuring scale is 11-64. It has four digits in all. Out of the 1, 1, and 6 are certain digits while the last digit ‘4’ is uncertain. Thus, the number may be reported as follows :

Thus, the significant figures in any number are all certain digits plus one doubtful digit.
It may be noted all digits reported in a number are significant. However, only the last digit is uncertain while the rest are certain. Thus, the number 11-64 has all four digits as significant figures. Out of the 1, 1 and 6 are certain while 4 has some uncertainty about it.

Question 17.
A sample of drinking water was found to be severely contaminated with chloroform CHCI3, supposed to be a carcinogen. The level of contamination was 15 ppm (by mass)
(i) Express this in percent by mass.
(ii) Determine the molality of chloroform in the water sample.
(i) Calculation of percent by mass
15 ppm level of contamination means that 15 parts or 15 g of chloroform (CHCI3) are present in 106 parts or 106 g of the sample i.e., water.

(ii) Calculation of molality of the solution
Mass of chloroform = 1.5 x 10-3 g
Molar mass of chloroform (CHCI3) = 12 + 1 + (3 × 35.5) = 119.5 g mol-1
Mass of sample i.e., water = 100 g

Question 18.
following in the scientific notation:
(i) 0.0048
(ii) 234,000
(iii) 8008
(iv) 500.0
(v) 6.0012

(i) 4.8 x 10-3
(ii) 2.34 × 105
(iii) 8.008 × 103
(iv) 5.000 × 102
(v) 6.0012 × 100

Question 19.
How many significant figures are present in the following?
(i) 0.0025
(ii) 208
(iii) 5005
(iv) 126,000
(iv) 500.0.
(v) 2.0034

(i) 2
(ii) 3
(iii) 4
(iv) 6
(v) 4
(vi) 5

Question 20.
Round up the following upto three significant figures :
(i) 34.216
(ii) 10.4107
(iii) 0.04597
(iv) 2808

(i) 34.2
(ii) 10.4
(iii) 0.0460
(iv) 281

Question 21a.
The following data is obtained when dinitrogen and dioxygen react together to form different compounds :

By keeping 14 g as the fixed mass of dinitrogen (N2), the ratios by mass of dioxygen (O2) combining with 14 g dinitrogen are : 16 : 32 : 16 : 40 or 2 : 4 : 2 : 5. Since this ratio is simple whole number, the data obeys the Law Multiple Proportions.

Question 21b.
Fill in the blanks in the following conversions :
(i) 1 km = ……… mm = ……….. pm
(ii) 1 mg = …….. kg = …………. ng
(iii) 1 mL = ……. L = ………… dm3.

Question 22.
If the speed of light is 3.0 x 108 m s-1, calculate the distance covered by light in 2.00 ns.

Question 23.
Identify the limiting reactant if any in the following reaction mixtures ?
A + B → AB2
(i) 300 atoms of A + 200 molecules of B2
(ii) 100 atoms of A + 100 molecules of B2
(iii) 5 moles of A + 2.5 moles of B2
(iv) 2.5 moles of A + 5 moles of B2
(v) 2 moles of A + 3 moles of B2.

In the light of the above information, let us find the limiting reactant if any in all the cases
(i) 1 atom of A will react with molecules of B2 =1
300 atoms of A will react with molecules of B2 = 300
But the molecules of B2 actually available = 200
∴B2 is the limiting reactant.

(ii) 1 atom of A will react with molecules of B2 = 1
100 atoms of A will react with molecules of B2 = 100
The molecules of B2 actually available = 100
∴There is no limiting reactant in this case.

(iii) 1 mole of A will react with moles of B2 =1
5 moles of A will react with moles of B2 =5
But the moles of B2 actually available = 2.5
∴B2 is the limiting reactant.

(iv) 1 mole of A will react with moles of B2 =1
2.5 moles of A will react with moles of B2 = 2.5
But moles of B2 actually available = 5
This shows that 5 moles of A can react whereas only 2.5 moles of A are actually available.
∴A is the limiting reactant.

(v) 1 mole of A will react with moles of B2 = 1
2 moles of A will react with moles of B = 2
But the moles of B2 actually available = 3
This shows that 3 moles of A can react whereas only 2 moles of A are actually available.
∴ A is the limiting reactant.

Question 24.
Nitrogen and hydrogen react to form ammonia according to the reaction
N2 (g) + 3H2 (g) →2NH3(g)
If 1000 g of H2 react with 2000 g of N2,
(i) will any of the two reactants remain unreacted ? If yes, which one and what would be its mass ?
(ii) Calculate the mass of ammonia (NH3) which will be formed.

According to available data,
28 g of N2 require H2 = 6 g
2000 g of N2 require H2 = (6g) x $$\frac { 2000 g }{ 28 g }$$=428.6 g
But H2 actually available = 1000 g
This means that H2 is in excess and will remain unreacted.
(i) Mass of H2 that remains unreacted = 1000 – 428.6 = 571.4 g
(ii) Mass of NH3 formed may be calculated as follows :
6 g of H2 will form NH3 = 34 g
428.6 g H2 will form NH3 = (34g) x $$\frac { 428.6 g }{ 6.0 g }$$ = 2428.8 g

Question 25.
How are 0.50 mol Na2Co3 and 0.50 M Na2Co3 different ?
0.50 mol Na2CO3 represent concentration in moles.
0.50 M Na2CO3 represent concentration in moles/litre (molarity).

Question 26.
If 10 volumes of dihydrogen react with five volumes of dioxygen gas, how many volumes of water will be produced ?

10 volumes of water vapours will be produced.

Question 27.
Convert the following into basic units
(i) 28.7 pm
(ii) 15.15 \xs
(iii) 25365 mg.

Question 28.
Which of the following has largest number of atoms ?
(i) 1 g of Au
(ii) lg of Na
(iii) 1 g of Li
(iv) lg of Cl2

(i) 197 g of Au have atoms = 6.022 x 1023
∴ l g of Au has atoms = 6.022 × 1023 × $$\frac { 1 g }{ 197g }$$ = 3.06 x 1021
(ii) 23 g of Na have atoms = 6.022 × 1023
1 g of Na has atoms = 6 -022 × 1023 × $$\frac { 1 g }{ 23g }$$ = 2.62 x 1022 atoms
(iii) 71 g of Cl2 have molecules = 6.022 × 1023
71 g of Cl2 have atoms = 2 × 6.022 x 1023
1 g of Cl2 has atoms = 2 × 6.022 × 1023 x $$\frac { 1 g }{ 71g }$$ = 1.67 × 1022 atoms
Thus, 1 g of lithium (Li) has the largest number of atoms.

Question 29.
Calculate the molarity of a solution of ethanol in water in which mole fraction of ethanol is 0.04.

2.31 moles of ethanol are dissolved in 1000 g (or 1000 mL) of water or 1000 mL of the solution. In this case, the volume of solution is considered to be the same as that of the solvent i.e., water. In other words, the solution is regarded as dilute solution,
∴Molarity of solution = 2.31 M

Question 30.
What will be mass of one 12C in g ?

Question 31.
How many significant figures should be present in the answer of the following calculations ?
(i) $$\frac { 0.2856 x 298.15 x 0.112 }{ 0.5785 }$$
(ii) 5 x 5.364
(iii) 0.0125 + 0-7864 4- 0.0215.

(i) The least precise figure (0.112) has 3 significant figures. Therefore, the answer should have three significant figures.
(ii) The second figure (5.364) has 4 significant figures. Therefore, the answer should be reported upto four significant figures. The exact figure (5) is not considered in this case.
(iii) In this case, the least precise figures (0.0125 and 0.0215) have 3 significant figures. Therefore, the answer should be reported upto three significant figures.

Question 32.
Use the data given in the following table to calculate the molar mass of naturally occurring argon.

Molar mass of argon is the average molar mass and may be calculated as :

Question 33.
Calculate the number of atoms present in : (i) 52 moles of He (ii) 52 u of He (iii) 52 g of He.
(i) 1 mole of He contains atoms = 6.022 × 1023
52 moles of He contain atoms = 6.022 x 1023 x 52 = 3-13 × 1025 atoms
(ii) Atomic mass of He = 4 u ; 4 u is the mass of He atoms = 1
52 u is the mass of He atoms = $$\frac { 1 }{ 4 }$$ x 52 = 13 atoms
(iii) Gram atomic mass of He = 4 g ; 4 g of He contain atoms = 6.022 × 1023

Question 34.
A welding fuel gas contains carbon and hydrogen only. Burning a small sample of it in oxygen gives 3.38 g carbon dioxide, 0.690 g water and no other products. A volume of 10.0 L (measured at NTP) of this welding gas is found to weigh 11.6 g. Calculate (i) empirical formula (ii) molar mass and (iii) molecular formula of the gas.
Step I. Calculation of mass percent of carbon and hydrogen.

Step II. Determination of empirical formula of fuel gas.
Empirical formula of the fuel gas = CH.

Step III. Calculation of molecular mass of fuel gas.
10.0 L of the fuel gas at N.T.P. weigh = 11.6 g
22.4 L of the fuel gas at N.T.P. weigh =$$\frac { 11.6 }{ 10.0}$$ × 24.4 =25.98 g
Molecular mass of the fuel gas = 25.98 g $$\approx$$ 26.0 g = 26 u

Step IV. Calculation of molecular formula of the gas.
Empirical formula mass = 12 + 1 = 13 u
Molecular mass = 26 u
n = $$\frac { Molecular mass }{ Empirical formula mass }$$ × $$\frac { 126 }{ 13}$$ = 2
∴ Molecular formula = n × Empirical formula = 2 × CH = C2H2
The molecular formula of fuel gas is C2H2 and it is acetylene.

Question .35.
Calcium carbonate reacts with aqueous HCl to give CaCl2 and Co2 according to the reaction :
CaCo3 (s) + 2HCl (aq) + CaCl2 (aq) + Co2 (g) + H2o (l)
What mass of CaCo3 is required to react completely with 25 mL of 0.75 M HCl ?

Question 36.
Chlorine is prepared in the laboratory by treating manganese dioxide (Mno2) with aqueous hydrochloric acid according to the reaction :
4HCl(aq) + MnO2(s) → MnCl2(aq) + Cl2(g) + 2H2O(l)
How many grams of HCl react with 5.0 g of manganese dioxide ?

We hope the NCERT Solutions for Class 11 Chemistry at Work Chapter 1 Some Basic Concepts of Chemistry, help you. If you have any query regarding NCERT Solutions for Class 11 Chemistry at Work Chapter 1 Some Basic Concepts of Chemistry, drop a comment below and we will get back to you at the earliest.

## NCERT Solutions for Class 11 English Hornbill Chapter 1 The Portrait of a Lady

Here we are providing NCERT Solutions for Class 11 English Hornbill Chapter 1 The Portrait of a Lady. Students can get Class 11 English The Portrait of a Lady NCERT Solutions, Questions and Answers designed by subject expert teachers.

## The Portrait of a Lady NCERT Solutions for Class 11 English Hornbill Chapter 1

### The Portrait of a Lady NCERT Text Book Questions and Answers

The Portrait of a Lady Understanding the text

Mention

Question 1.
The three phases of the author’s relationship with his grandmother before he left the country to study abroad.
The three phases of the author’s relationship with his grandmother before he left the country to study abroad were:
(a) Admiration and friendship – The author admired his grandmother and described her as the “winter landscape in the mountains, an expanse of pure white serenity breathing peace and contentment”. They were good friends. She woke him up in the morning and got him ready for school. She waited for him while he was in school and then walked him back.

(b) Growing distant – She could not accompany him to school as he went by the school bus. He was now in an English school, where they taught science. She could not understand English and did not believe in science. The fact that they were not taught about god made her unhappy. Khushwant Singh’s learning music in school made her unhappier as she felt it was not meant for gentle folk.

(c) Wide gulf – When he went to the university, he got a separate room and even the last link of a shared room was snapped. The grandmother kept to her spinning wheel, rarely talking to anyone.

NCERT Solutions for Class 11 English will help you to score more marks in your CBSE board Examination.

Question 2.
Three reasons why the author’s grandmother was disturbed when he started going to the city school.
The three reasons why the author’s grandmother was disturbed when he started going to the city school were:

• She did not believe in the things they taught at the English school.
• She was distressed that they were not taught about God and the scriptures.
• She was very disturbed about the fact that he was being given music lessons. To her, music was not the way of the gentle folk.

Question 3.
Three ways in which the author’s grandmother spent her days after he grew up.
The three ways in which the author’s grandmother spent her days after he grew up were:

• She was resigned to her loneliness and did not interact much with the author.
• From sunrise to sunset she sat by her wheel, spinning and reciting prayers.
• In the afternoon, she relaxed for a while to feed the sparrows.

Question 4.
The odd way in which the author’s grandmother behaved just before she died.
Unlike the doctors who believed that she would recover, the grandmother knew that her end was near. She said, since only a few hours before the close of the last chapter of her life she had omitted to pray, she was not going to waste any more time talking to them. She ignored their protests. She lay peacefully in bed praying and telling her beads till her lips stopped moving and the rosary fell from her lifeless fingers.

Question 5.
The way in which the sparrows expressed their sorrow when the author’s grandmother died.
When the grandmother died, thousands of sparrows collected and sat in the courtyard. There was no chirruping. When the author’s mother threw some bread for them, they took no notice of the bread. They were full of grief at her death and flew away quietly after the cremation. The breadcrumbs had to be swept away the next day.

Question 1.
The author’s grandmother was a religious person. What are the different ways in which we come to know this?
The author recalls his grandmother as a very religious person. In his earliest memories he recalls her hobbling about the house telling the beads of her rosary. As she bathed him she said her morning prayer, hoping that he, too, would learn it. While he studied in school, she read scriptures inside the temple.

Once the author went to the university, and he and his grandmother drifted apart, she rarely left her spinning wheel to talk to anyone. From sunrise to sunset she sat by her wheel, spinning and reciting prayers. The author recalls that even during the last few hours she spent all her time praying.

Question 2.
Describe the changing relationship between the author and his grandmother. Did their feelings for each
other change?
When the author was a young boy, his parents shifted to the city leaving him with his grandmother. They were good friends and spent all their time together. She woke him up each morning, bathed him, dressed him, plastered his wooden slate, gave him breakfast and walked him to school. While he sat in the veranda learning, the grandmother sat inside the temple reading scriptures.

When they had both finished, they would walk back together. But once in the city, there was a turning point in their friendship. The only thing that remained unchanged was their common bedroom. She could not accompany him to school as he went by the school bus. He now went to an English school, where they taught science.

She could not understand English and did not believe in science. The fact that they were not taught about god made her unhappy. His learning music in school made her feel worse. When he went to the university, he got a separate room and this snapped off their ties even further.

This was not deliberate but the demands of the situation had this effect on their relationship. However, their feelings for each other never changed. When the writer was going abroad, she went to the railway station to see him off but did not speak a word, she only kissed his forehead. The writer cherished this as their last physical contact as he was going away for five years. But when he returned, she was still there and was delighted to see him back.

In the evening she, for whom music had lewd associations, collected women from the neighbourhood and beat the drum and sang for hours of the homecoming of the warriors. For the first time, she missed her prayers to celebrate the author’s homecoming. The next day, she developed a mild fever and died; it was almost as if she had been waiting for the author’s return.

Question 3.
Would you agree that the author’s grandmother was a person strong in character? If yes, give instances
that show this.
Khushwant Singh’s grandmother was a strong woman whom he loved and admired. When his parents went to the city, she took charge of him. In the city, although she disapproved of certain things that he was taught in school, she did not express it.

She had the inner strength to withdraw quietly. The writer also recalls, with pleasure, the moments when he was going abroad; she went to the railway station to see him off but did not talk or show any emotion.

Her lips moved in prayer and she kissed his forehead silently. The strength of her character was also evident during the last few days of her life. She knew that her end was near. She said that she was not going to waste any more time talking to anybody.

She ignored their protests and lay peacefully in bed praying and telling her beads till the last moment. A peaceful pallor spread on her face and they knew that she was dead.

Question 4.
Have you known someone like the author’s grandmother? Do you feel the same sense of loss with regard to someone whom you have loved and lost?
The death of a grandparent is probably one of the worst things that can happen to you as a child. Facing death can be sad or frightening to anyone, but as a child, it seems all the more difficult to cope with all the pain, grief, and confusion. I experienced this as a child of six when I lost my grandfather. My parents, too, were undergoing a trauma but they were almost oblivious to my grief.

They did not realise that although I did not fully understand the finality of death, I felt miserable. I went through intense and confusing emotions. They felt I was too young to understand the finality of death. For me, first it was shock, then denial, as I couldn’t accept what had happened. Then I was angry, and finally sadness and depression engulfed me. I wanted to withdraw from the world, not wanting to see or speak to anyone, or do anything.

For days I wanted to look through his belongings. I would sit in his room for hours. Perhaps, subconsciously, it was my way of reaching out to him. There were times when I thought I would never enjoy life the same way again. Later, I learnt that this is a natural reaction after a loss. “Time is the best healer,” say people but I feel it only covers the -hurt. The loss of a dear one stays with you forever.

Question 1.
Which language do you think the author and his grandmother used while talking to each other?
Punjabi – as the writer and his grandmother belonged to a Punjabi Sikh family. Moreover, they lived in a village.

Question 2.
Which language do you use to talk to elderly relatives in your family?
Languages used in India by different families include Hindi, Odiya, Bhojpuri, Santhali, Tamil, Malayalam, Gujarati, Bengali, Assamese, Nagamese, Mizo, Nepali, amongst numerous other languages across the country. (Answers will vary).

Question 3.
How would you say ‘a dilapidated drum’ in your language?

Question 4.
Can you think of a song or a poem in your language that talks of homecoming?

The Portrait of a Lady Working with words

I. Notice the following uses of the word ‘tell’ in the text.

• Her fingers were busy telling the beads of her rosary.
• I would tell her English words and little things of Western science and learning.
• At her age one could never tell.
• She told us that her end was near.

Given below are four different senses of the word ‘tell’. Match the meanings to the uses listed above.

1. make something known to someone in spoken or written words
2. count while reciting
3. be sure
4. give information to somebody

• Her fingers were busy telling the beads of her rosary –  count while reciting
• I would tell her English words and little things of western science and learning – give information to somebody
• At her age one could never tell –  be sure
• She told us that her end was near – make something known to someone in spoken or written words

II. Notice the different senses of the word ‘take’.

• to take to something: to begin to do something as a habit
• to take ill: to suddenly become ill

Locate these phrases in the text and notice the way they are used.

• There were no dogs in the streets and she took to feeding sparrows in the courtyard of our city house.
• The next morning she was taken ill.

III. The word ‘hobble’ means to walk with difficulty because the legs and feet are in bad condition.

Tick the words in the box below that also refer to a manner of walking

• shuffle – to walk dragging your feet
• stride – pace, step
• waddle – to walk with short steps while causing the body; to tilt slightly from one side to the other, especially because of having short legs and being overweight