The Philosophy of the Constitution Class 11 Important Extra Questions Political Science Chapter 10

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Class 11 Political Science Chapter 10 Important Extra Questions The Philosophy of the Constitution

The Philosophy of the Constitution Important Extra Questions Very Short Answer Type

Question 1.
What is the need for political philosophy for Constitutions?
Answer:
The constitution is not only a framework of government but also an instrument of socio-economic transformation for which it needs direction and that direction is provided by political philosophy. It is because of this we need a political philosophy for every Constitution. It is the political philosophy that shows the- path and helps the society and government to set the objective and values.

Question 2.
What is the significance of political philosophy for a Constitution?
Answer:
The political philosophy to the constitution is needed not only to find out the moral content expressed in it and to evaluate its claims but possibly to use it to arbitrate between varying interpretations of many core values in our polity. Every Constitution of the world has philosophic content and base to move society in the desired direction.

Question 3.
Discuss the Constitution as an arbitrator?
Answer:
Constitutions are the product of the theory of constitutionalism which stands for the check arbitrariness of ruler and it facilitates the rule of .reason and rational deliberations. It is widely accepted that our reason for having constitutions is the need to restrict the exercise of irrational and arbitrary power.

Question 4.
Discuss the Constitution as a mean of the transformation of society
Answer:
Constitutions provide peaceful, democratic means to bring about social and economic transformation. It has philosophic backing which sets the direction and objectives of the society.

Question 5.
How the Constituent Assembly was constituted?
Answer:
During the National Movement, the demand for a Constituent Assembly was raised. It was a collective demand for self-determination. They argued that only a Constituent Assembly of elected representatives of the Indian people had the right to frame India’s Constitution. It was set up or per Cabinet Mission Plan 1946. The majority of the members were indirectly elected and others were nominated from different sections of the society.

Question 6.
Was the Constituent Assembly a sovereign body?
Answer:
In a technical sense, the Constituent Assembly was not sovereign because it was set up as per terms and conditions set by the British Government and Constitution will be approved by the British Government before the implementation. But we can say it a Constituent Assembly which was represented only by Indians and there was no kind of interference of the British Government. It was adopted and implemented on behalf of the people of India.

Question 7.
What is the preamble of the Indian Constitution?
Answer:
The preamble of the Constitution is the introductory part of the constitution which includes the terms of Government, social, economic, and religious system. It also includes the philosophy of the constitution and values and direction and objectives of the Constitution.

Question 8.
What is Liberalism?
Answer:
Liberalism is one of the main philosophic content of the Indian Constitution. It seeks to liberate the Indian society from the shackles of social and economic backwardness and to take in the area of freedom, equality, and justice.

Question 9.
What are the main contents of the political philosophy of the Constitution?
Answer:
The main contents of the political philosophy of the Indian Constitution are as under.

  1. Liberalism
  2. Egalitarianism
  3. Social justice
  4. Secularism
  5. Federalism

Question 10.
What do you mean by Liberalism?
Answer:
Liberalism means openers and decisions by rational thinking, discussions, and debates. The liberalism of the Indian constitution differs from western liberalism in many ways. Indian liberalism seeks to achieve the goal of social justice for Indian society through the provision to achieve Fundamental Rights of equality and liberty and by the reservation of seats.

Question 11.
What is a federation?
Answer:
Since Indian society is a plural one, therefore it needs federal polity and economy. Federation stands for decentralization. India is a multilingual federation. All the major linguistic groups are politically recognized and all are treated as equals. A Federation is a group of equal units with decentralized powers.

Question 12.
What is Secularism?
Answer:
Secularism is important philosophic and idealistic content of Indian society and polity. It is a positive concept which does not stand on the complete separation of state and religion. It allows the state for positive intervention in religious matters.

Question 13.
What is national integration?
Answer:
National integration is both philosophies as well as the objectives of the Indian Constitution which are mentioned in the Indian Constitution. It is been the fundamental duty of every citizen of India to protect and deferred the national integration and not to harm it in any way. National integration means emotional, psychological, and intellectual unification of people of India and not allow, caste, color, sex and status, and region in its way.

Question 14.
What do you mean by individually and Dignity?
Answer:
Individual freedom and dignity of men are two important values of the Indian Constitution .which are based on Liberal Political Philosophy. Indian Constitution is committed to the individual freedom and dignity of men which are mentioned in the Preamble of the Constitution. It is the result of continuous intellectual discussion and debate. The dignity of man means respect for human personality and human feelings. The state must be responsive to the needs of the people. It is for this that freedom of expression is an integral part of the Constitution.

Question 15.
On what basis the Constitution of India is criticized?
Answer:
The Indian Constitution is criticized on the following bases:

  1. It was written by a Constituent Assembly which was not representative.
  2. The Constituent Assembly was not sovereign
  3. The Procedure of taking the decisions was defective.
  4. The constitutional provisions have been borrowed from different countries.

The Philosophy of the Constitution Important Extra Questions Short Answer Type

Question 1.
What do you mean by the philosophy of the Constitution?
Answer:
The constitution is not merely an aggregation of rules, regulations, and laws. The constitution is not only a legal document but also has a moral and philosophic base and contents. Most of the laws are connected with the customs and values of society. Every Constitution is value ridden which provides the philosophy base to the Constitution. Philosophy provides the moral vision of the constitution. An attempt is made to work out a coherent vision of society and polity conditional upon an interpretation of the key concepts of the Constitution. Philosophy of the Constitution includes the set of ideas embedded in the Constitution. Political philosophy is needed not only to find out the moral content expressed in it and to evaluate its claims but possibly to use it to calibrate between varying interpretations of the many core values of our polity.

Question 2.
How the constitution is an instrument of socio-economic transformation?
Answer:
Constitution provides the framework of government to run the polity on a definite philosophical base. Constitution also provides the mechanism to bring about socio-economic transformation of the society. Constitution keeps a check on the arbitrariness of the ruler and paves the way for achieving the goals of the society set on the basis of a particular philosophy. To bring about the socio-economic transformation of the society, philosophic and value system support is a must which is provided by the political philosophy of the Constitution. For example, the Indian constitution is designed on such a philosophic base so as to get Indian society of age-old evils like illiteracy, casteism, peasantry, and exploitation.

Question 3.
What was the nature of the Constituent Assembly?
Answer:
Constituent Assembly was constituted as per the recommenda┬Čtions of the Cabinet Mission Plan 1946 in response to the demand of the leaders of the National Movement who were demanding the right to self-determination. Following are the features of the Constituent Assembly:

  1. Constituent Assembly was constituted on the principle of self-determination.
  2. It was constituted as per the terms and conditions set by the British Government.
  3. Constituent Assembly was constituted by indirect election which was not based on the adult franchise but on the limited right of vote.
  4. Most of the decisions were taken by consensus and accommodation.
  5. Many representatives of some groups were nominated
  6. It was made to write the Constitution of India.

Question 4.
Explain the main features of the Political philosophy of the Constitution of India.
Answer:
Following were some important elements of the political philosophy of the Indian constitution:

  1. Liberalization
  2. Social Justice
  3. Protection of rights and interests of minorities.
  4. Federation
  5. Individual freedom
  6. The dignity of man.
  7. National integration
  8. Democracy
  9. Secularism
  10. Universal Franchise

Question 5.
Explain social justice as the value of the Indian Constitution?
Answer:
Social value is the highly cherished value of the Indian Constitution for which various measures have been incorporated in different parts of the Constitution. The value of social justice is referred to in the preamble. The other related values are as under:-

  • Justice Social:- economic and political
  • Liberty:- Thought and expression
  • Equality:- Status and opportunity

All these values are complementary to the1 value of Justice. For social justice economic and political justice are necessary. The value of Liberty and equality are also necessary to achieve the objectives of social justice which seeks to achieve egalitarian society free front inequality, exploitation, and wants.

Question 6.
How the Indian constitution seeks to achieve unity in diversity?
Answer:
It is said about India that India is not a country, it is a continent because there are numerous languages and dialects, regions, and religions. It has a multi-cultural society. People have different dress patterns, different food habits, different traditions, and different festivals but in spite of this diversity in socio, economic set up there is the threat of unity. This unity is achieved by the spirit of nationalism which is all-pervasive.

Indian Constitution is made on such values that spread equality, brotherhood and promote a sense of equality which strengthens nationalism. Therefore there is unity in diversity.

Question 7.
What is the importance of individual freedom?
Answer:
Indian Constitution is committed to individual freedom. Individual dignity found the place of importance m the preamble of the Indian constitution. Rights of individual expression are given in Art 19 of the Constitution Many social reformers like Raja Ram Mohan Roy fought for the cause of individual freedom. Western liberal thinkers also influenced the cause of individual rights and expression. Therefore, the right to individual expression is an essential element of democracy. It is an integral part of the Constitution element of democracy. The individual expression has been the part and parcel of the charters of demand of self-determination and democracy. It is very necessary for the fuller development of an individual.

Question 8.
Define secularism as the value of the Indian Constitution.
Answer:
India is a country where people of different religions and faith life together. Art 25 of the Indian Constitution clearly gives the message of secularism. It is provided here that the state will neither patronize any religions nor will become the hindrance of any religion. In 1926 by the 42nd Constitutional amendment the word secularism was added in the Preamble of the Constitution to make it clear that India is a secular state. Our secularism is humanistic scientific and positive. The state is allowed to intervene in religious affairs for a positive purpose.

Question 9.
Explain Universal franchise.
Answer:
Constitution makers provided for Universal Adult Franchise which means that every adult person has been given the right to vote irrespective of his caste, color, sex, status, and religion. It is done in reference to the sense of decisions of a human being. It is trusted that man can take rational decisions.

Question 10.
Explain the provision of reservation for social justice in the Indian constitution.
Answer:
To achieve social justice the Constitution makers made the provision of reservation in services for the people of Scheduled castes and Scheduled tribes. They were of the view that more granting right of. equality will not help in achieving the cause of social justice, special constitutional measures were required to advance the interests of weaker sections. They also provided reservation of seats in Parliament and state legislatures.

Question 11.
Write the features of the Indian Federation.
Answer:
Indian society is plural therefore its polity is also federal which requires the development of unions and states in their respective areas. Its essential features are incorporated in the Indian Constitution which is as under

  1. Written constitutional with the supremacy of the constitution
  2. Division of powers between the center and the status as per the constitutional scheme.
  3. Bicameral Legislature in the center.
  4. Independent and strong judiciary.

Question 12.
Mention some unitary features of the Indian Constitution.
Answer:
Indian Constitution is based on federal value. It is federal in structure but unitary in spirit. Its striking unitary features are as under:

  1. Strong center pro center distribution of powers.
  2. Provision of Emergency power to center under Art 352
  3. President rule in States as per Art 356
  4. Unequal representation of States in Parliament
  5. Control of States by center by All India Government Service
  6. Provision of special status for some states under Art 370 to Jammu & Kashmir and under Art 371 to Northern Eastern State.

Question 13.
Comment on the Procedural achievements of the Indian Constitution and Constituent Assembly.
Answer:
Besides various achievement of the different values and features of the Indian Constitution there are some procedural achievements also which are as under:

  1. Decisions are taken by discussions, debate, and rational deliberation collectively. Public opinions are given due weight in the decision-making process. Constituent Assembly reflecting the different sections of the society also reflect different shades of opinion and different interest groups. There is the full scope of differing and dissent.
  2. There was a remarkable spirit of compromise and accommodation to create consensus on controversial issues. Besides a commitment to the idea that decisions on the most important issues must be arrived at consensually rather than by majority vote is equally morally commendable. Most of the controversial and thorny issues introduced in the best spirit of accommodation and consensus.

Question 14.
Comment upon the negative features of the Constituent Assembly.
Answer:
Constituent Assembly was constituted in 1966. It took two years, eleven months, and eighteen days to complete the constitution which indicates, how difficult work was to write the Constitution. Some of the negative features of Constituent Assembly are as under

  1. It was not a sovereign body
  2. It was an unrepresentative body
  3. It was Congress dominated
  4. It was Hindu dominated.

Ultimately it was the best option in the given circumstances and made a wonderful Constitution.

Question 15.
How far do you agree that the Indian Constitution is a borrowed bag?
Answer:
It is said about the Indian Constitution is an alien document. It is also said that it is a borrowed bag. These statements are correct to some extent. When we got independence and the Constitution was being written we did not have our own trusted institutions. Therefore we searched for the constitutions from different countries of the world suiting our requirement.

Since we were familiar with the working of the Parliamentary system of Britain. Therefore we adopted the Parliamentary system of Britain and also took other institutions and features from different countries, for example, we adopted, the post of Vice President, Fundamental Rights, power of judicial review from the USA. We took the Directive Principles of State Policy from Ireland. We took the concept of the Union of States from Canada. We took Emergency powers from the Constitution of Germany. In this sense, it is called a borrowed bag. But we did not have just carbon copies of these institutions and features. We . took them and modified them according to our situations and requirements.

Secondly, we have many things of our own that shaped and influenced the Constitution, our traditions, our past, and mainly the Government of India Act 1935 and Nehru Report also made the base of the Indian Constitution., Many-members of the Constituent Assembly also acknowledge the fact that our Constitution is a borrowed bag.

The Philosophy of the Constitution Important Extra Questions Long Answer Type

Question 1.
Explain the values and philosophy of the Indian constitution as given in the Preamble of the Constitution.
Answer:
The Preamble of the Indian Constitution is the introductory part of the Constitution. It is an integral part of the Constitution. It helps in the explanation and interpretations of different provisions of the Constitution.

It starts with the people of India. It means that this Constitution which is written by Constituent Assembly is being adopted on behalf of the people. Further, it says that India will be sovereign, socialistic, secular, democratic. republic. It means that it clearly tells that the form of government will be democratic Republican, it will be based on socialistic economy and as regards the place of religion, it will be secular.

Further, it says that there will be

  • Justice – social, economic and Political
  • Liberty – of thought and expression
  • Equality – of status and opportunity.

These values of justice, liberty, and equality tell the liberal content of the political philosophy of the Constitution. Its preferences are to achieve social justice, economic justice, and political justice, where there will be liberty of expression and thought and equality of status and opportunity. All these values are ensured through Fundamental Rights and Directive Principles of state policy.

The other values are dignity and national unity and integrity of the nation. Thus preamble speakers of forms of the social, economic, and political system. It speaks of the philosophy, values, and objectives of the Constitution.