NCERT Class 8 History Chapter 12 Notes India After Independence

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India After Independence Class 8 Notes Social Science History Chapter 12

CBSE Class 8 History Chapter 12 Notes Understanding the Lesson

1. India, with its independence in 1947, faced a huge series of challenges.

2. Especially, the challenges were in the form of refugees and of princely states, settlements which were to be addressed immediately.

3. Political system was created in a manner that it could best serve the expectations of the country’s population.

4. In 1947, India had great population of approximately around 345 million that was divided on the basis of castes, community, languages, dress and lifestyle etc., that needed to be united as soon as possible.

5. Problem of unity was added with the problem of development.

6. New nation was willing in the upliftment of its masses that is its people out of poverty.

7. This could only be done by increasing the productivity of agriculture and by promotion of the new job creating industries.

8. The Constitution was written between December 1946 – November 1949 when around 300 members from all over India had series of meetings at the Constituent Assembly in Delhi.

9. These discussions resulted in framing of the Indian Constitution which came into effect on 26 January 1950.

10. First feature of the constitution was the adoption of universal adult franchise, a revolutionary step which was adopted in steps in UK and US also. But in India, just after Independence, this right was granted to the citizens regardless of gender, class or education.

11. Second feature of the Indian Constitution was that it guaranteed its citizen’s equality before the law regardless to their castes, or religious belongingness.

12. Third feature of the constitution was the offering of special privileges to the poorest and the most disadvantaged Indians by describing the practice of untouchability as a “slur and a blot” on the “fair name of India”.

13. Reservation was granted in seats and jobs to former untouchables, the adivasis or scheduled tribes.

14. Many of the days were spent in the discussions about the powers of the central government and the state governments.

15. This was resolved as in Constitution there is mentioned about the three lists of subjects.

  • Union List: That discusses about the subjects such as taxes, defence, and foreign affairs, basically the responsibility of the centre is discussed.
  • State List: Comprised of subjects like education and health that would be taken care of principally by the states.
  • Concurrent List: The subjects discussed in this list are such as forests and agriculture in which the centre and the states would have joint responsibility.

16. Major debate in the Constituent Assembly concerned language.

17. Many Indians played important role in the framing of the constitution but the most important role was played by Dr B.R. Ambedkar, Chairman of the Drafting Committee who supervised and finalised the document.

18. Formation of state was also a problem. It was promised by the Congress before independence that after winning independence each major linguistic group would have its own province. Although the promise was not fulfilled by Congress.

19. Both Prime Minister Nehru and Deputy Prime Minister were against the creation of states on linguistic base.

20. Non-fulfillment of promise by Congress created a great disappointment among the speakers of different languages.

21. Strongest protest was by Telugu speaking districts of the Madras Presidency.

22. New state of Andhra Pradesh came into existence on 1 October 1953. This happened after:

23. Veteran Gandhian named Potti Sriramula went on a hunger fast demanding for the formation of a new state i.e., Andhra Pradesh that will protect the interests of the Telugu speakers.

24. State Reorganisation Commission was set up when the demand for various separate states was raised by the different linguistic communities.

25. The commission submitted its report in 1956. The report recommended the redrawing of district and provincial boundaries to form compact provinces of Assamese, Bengali, Oriya, Tamil, Malayalam, Kannada and Telugu speakers respectively.

26. The further division was seen in areas of Hindi speaking people and bilingual state. For example, Bombay a bilingual state was divided into Marathi and Gujarati, Punjab divided into Punjab and Haryana etc.

27. Planning for developments started as a process after the country was approximately settled best by the leaders of that period.

  • In manner to lift India and Indians out of poverty and building a modern and industrial base were taken as objectives of the new nation.
  • Planning Commission was set up in 1950 by the government.
  • Planning Commission was aimed at designing and executing suitable policies of economic development.
  • 1956 saw the Second Five Year Plan for emulation.
  • The Second Five Year Plan focused strongly on the development of heavy industries.
  • These sectors would be under the control of the state.
  • This approach of development of heavy industries on one side got strong supporters but on the same hand it also saw vocal critics.

28. At present even after such a long time of independence India is still united, democratic and its achievements are what makes its citizens proud of it.

29. Despite of several hurdles we all saw several successes which are not only appreciated by Indians but also by the other world countries and its people.

30. The speciality and features of the Constitution like free press, independent judiciary, unity in diversity made its people proud of‘The Republic of India’.

India After Independence Class 8 CBSE Notes Important Terms

Franchise: The right to vote.

Linguistic: Relating to language.

State: Concerned with the government (here in this chapter).

Refugee: The one who has been forced to leave his country or home due to any specific condition.

Notes of History Class 8 Chapter 12 Time Period

1945: Formation of United Nation.

1947: India became independent (15th August)

1948: Mahatma Gandhi shot by NathuramGodse.

1950: (i) Adopted Indian Constitution (26th January).

(ii) Planning Commission was set up.

1952: First General Election held in India.

1953: The new State of Andhra Pradesh came into existence.

1959: The Bhilai Steel plant was set up with the help of the former Soviet Union in 1959 in the back­ward rural area of Chhattisgarh.

1960: Bombay was divided into separate states for Marathi and Gujarati speakers.

1966: The state of Punjab divided into two states Punjab and Haryana on the basis Punjabi & Haryanvi or Hindi speaking.