CBSE Sample Papers for Class 12 Political Science Paper 7 are part of CBSE Sample Papers for Class 12 Political Science. Here we have given CBSE Sample Papers for Class 12 Political Science Paper 7.
CBSE Sample Papers for Class 12 Political Science Paper 7
|Sample Paper Set||Paper 7|
|Category||CBSE Sample Papers|
Students who are going to appear for CBSE Class 12 Examinations are advised to practice the CBSE sample papers given here which is designed as per the latest Syllabus and marking scheme as prescribed by the CBSE is given here. Paper 7 of Solved CBSE Sample Paper for Class 12 Political Science is given below with free PDF download solutions.
Time Allowed: 3 hours
Maximum Marks: 80
- All questions are compulsory.
- Questions nos. 1 to 5 are of 1 mark each. The answer to these questions should not exceed 20 words
- Questions nos. 6 to 10 are of 2 marks each. The answer to these questions should not exceed 40 words
- Questions nos. 11 to 16 are of 4 marks each. The answer to these questions should not exceed 100 words
- Questions nos. 17 to 21 are of 5 marks each. The answer to these questions should not exceed 150 words
- Questions no. 21 is map based question
- Questions nos. 22 to 27 are of 6 marks each. The answer to these questions should not i exceed 150 words
“Non-alignment does not imply neutrality or equidistant.” What does this statement mean?
When did China get independence?
Who took the command over Pakistan after its first constitution was framed?
What was Bombay Plan?
What is foreign policy?
Mention any two advantages of having international organisation in the world?
What is military threat?
Which interests were hidden behind the conflicts between Hindus and Muslims at the time of independence?
“India’s experiment with universal adult franchise appeared very bold and risky.” Justify the statement.
What is ‘Mixed Economy’?
What is Amnesty International? State its main functions.
What is Human Rights Watch? Describe its main contribution to the field of Human Rights?
What was the significance of linguistic reorganisation of Indian states to the nation building?
Did the prevalence of a ‘one-party dominant system’ affect adversely the democratic nature of Indian politics?
What were the reasons which led to the mid-term elections in 1980?
Would you consider the anti-arrack movement as a women’s movement? Why?
Read the passage given below carefully and answer the following questions:
Each of these countries was required make a total shift to a capitalist economy, which meant rooting out completely any structures evolved during this period. Above all, it me^nt that private ownership was to be the dominant pattern of ownership of property. Privatization of state assets and corporate ownership patterns were to be immediately brought in. Collective farms were to be replaced by private farming and capitalism in agriculture. This transition rules out any alternate or ‘third way’.
(i) Name any two countries which were required to make a total shift.
(ii) Why were the collective farms to be replaced by private farming?
(iii) Since the third way had been ruled out, what were the only two ways controlling the economy?
Read the following passage carefully and answer the following questions:
Pakistan and Bangladesh have experienced both civilian and military rulers, with Bangladesh remaining democracy in the Post-Cold War period. Pakistan began the Post-Cold War period with successive democratic governments under Benazir Bhutto and Nawaz Sharif respectively. But it suffered a military coup in 1999 and has been run by a military regime since then. Till 2006 Nepal was a constitutional monarchy with the danger of the king taking over executive powers. In 2006, a successful uprising led to restoration of democracy and reduced the king to a nominal position. From the experience of Bangladesh and Nepal, we can say that democracy is becoming an accepted norm in the entire region of South Asia.
(i) How did Pakistan begin with Post-Cold War period?
(ii) Mention two reasons for the aspiration of democracy in South Asia.
(iii) Why these findings are significant?
Study the picture given below and answer the questions that follow:
(i) Who is addressing the people in the Cartoon?
(ii) What does the people symbolise in it?
(iii) On which plan the Cartoon is highlighting?
Read the following passage carefully and answer the following questions:
The US and Soviet Union signed a number of other arms control treaties including the Strategic Arms Limitations Treaty II (SALT II) and the Strategic Arms Reduction Treaty (START). The Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT) of 1968 was an arms control treaty in the sense that it regulated the acquisition of nuclear weapons, those countries that had tested and manufactured nuclear weapons before 1967 were allowed to keep their weapons; and those that had not done so were to give up the right to acquire them. The NPT did not abolish nuclear weapons; rather, it limited the number of countries that could have them.
(i) What is arms control treaty?
(ii) Was NPT an arms control treaty? Why?
(iii) What was the intention behind regulation of NPT?
On an outline map of India, five states are marked as A, B, C, D and E where National Democratic alliance (NDA) came to power after the Lok Sabha elections 2004. Identify the states and write their names.
The 1977 elections for the first time saw the opposition coming into power at the centre. What would you consider as the reasons for this development?
Do movements and protests in a country strengthen democracy? Justify your answer with examples.
What led to the emergence of bipolar world? What were the arenas of Cold War between the two power blocs?
What set of conflicts had occurred in Soviet Republics? Explain.
How did the Soviet Union suddenly disintegrate? Explain any six reasons. (A.I. 2016)
Explain the importance and role of concept common but differentiated pertaining to environment. (Delhi 2013)
Throw light on the Swatantra Party and its policies.
What was the major thrust of the First Five Year Plan? In which ways did the Second Plan differ from the first one?
Why did India declare the policy of Non-alignment? Describe the principles and policy of Non-alignment.
How do the critics view the process of globalisation?
How did the coalition like character of the Congress Party give it an unusual strength?
Explain any two merits and two demerits each of the Green Revolution.
Neutrality refers to a policy of staying out of war and not to help end a war. Non-aligned countries including India worked to prevent wars and rivalries between others.
General Ayub Khan.
Bombay Plan was drafted in 1944 in the want of states to take major initiatives in industrial and other economic investment through a joint proposal of a section of the big industrialist for setting up a Planned Economy.
Foreign policy of a nation reflects systematic statements of national interests along with the interplay of domestic and external factors.
- To help countries in the matters of conflicts and differences.
- To make the countries cooperate and create better living conditions for humanity.
Military threat refers to military action from another country to endanger the core values of country’s sovereignty, independence, and territorial integrity. Military action often targets the men and women i.e. ordinary citizens.
Hindu and Muslim communities bear some political interests at the time of independence:
- Muslim League demanded a separate nation for Muslims to protect the interests of Muslims only.
- There were some Hindu organisations also which made efforts to look after the interests of Hindus only to make India a ‘Hindu Nation’.
- Country’s vast size and electorates made these elections unusual.
- The year 1952, it was a big test for poor and illiterate country.
- Till then, democracy had been existed only in the prosperous countries mainly in Europe and North America where everyone was almost literate.
Mixed economy is an economy to co-exist private and public sector both:
- Both the sectors work within invisible lands of market forces and visible lands of planning set by government.
- ‘State own’ means of production to aim social welfare and ‘private own’ means of production to be regulated by states.
It is an NGO that campaigns for the protection of Human Rights.
- It prepares and publishes reports on human rights.
- It mainly focuses on the misconduct of the government authorities.
- It works for the protection of the human rights.
Human Rights refer to an international NGO involved in research and advocating on human rights. It is the largest international organisation in the USA.
- It draws the global media’s attention to human rights abuses.
- It helped in building international coalitions to ban landmines.
- It made efforts to stop the use of child soldiers, and to establish the international criminal court.
- It advocates freedoms in connection with fundamental rights of human beings, such as freedom of religion and freedom of the press.
- It opposes violations of what it considers basic human rights, which include capital punishment and discrimination on the basis of sexual orientation.
In the early phase, it was felt that linguistic states may foster separatism and create pressures on newly founded nation. But India considered democracy and federalism by making a favour to linguistic states:
- Linguistic states enhanced democratic practices.
- Linguistic states reduced separatist attitude by accepting the regional linguistic claims of all regions.
- Linguistic reorganisation provided a uniform base to the nation and strengthened unity of nation.
- Linguistic states promoted the principle of unity in diversity, a distinct feature of nation.
No, the prevalence of one party dominance system did not affect adversely the democratic nature of Indian politics because:
- The key role of the Congress in the freedom struggle gave it a head start over others.
- The Congress accommodated diversified interests, religion, beliefs and aspirations to strengthen democracy.
- Despite being taken place of free and fair elections, Congress won elections in the same manner again and again.
- The Congress Party consisted of various factions inside itself, based on ideological considerations who never taught together or went out of Congress.
- Hence, on the basis of above mentioned criterion, it can be concluded that Congress strengthened ideals of democracy and held unity and integrity of the country.
- Janata Party lacked direction, leadership and a common programme.
- Janata Party government could not bring a fundamental change in policies pursued by Congress.
- There was a split in Janata Party and the government led by Morarji Desai which lost its majority in less than 18 months.
- Ch. Charan Singh government was formed due to support of Congress party which later decided to withdraw its support resulting resignation of Charan’Singh government within four months.
- All the above mentioned reasons led mid-term elections of 1980, which defeated Janata Party and again Congress led by Indira Gandhi came back to power by winning 353 seats.
Yes, we would consider the Anti-arrack movement as a part of women’s movement to provide a platform for women to discuss private issues of domestic violence:
- This movement focused on issues of sexual violence against women either within family or outside.
- Women joined the campaign against dowry and demanded personal and property laws based on gender equality.
- These campaigns contributed a great deal in increasing social awareness as well as shifted from legal reforms to open social confrontations.
- Consequently, movement demanded equal representation to women in politics during the nineties. Hence, 73rd and 74th amendments granted reservations to women in local level political offices.
Thus, it can be concluded to be a part of women’s movement.
- Russia and Kazakhstan.
- Private ownership was to be the dominant factor of ownership property. Collective farms were replaced by private farming and capitalism agriculture.
- Capitalist economy and Shock Therapy.
- Pakistan began with Post-Cold War period with successive democratic government under Benazir Bhutto and Nawaz Sharif.
- Ordinary citizens rich or poor or belonging to different religions or institutions view democracy more suitable and support them.
- Because it was earlier believed that democracy could flourish and find support only in prosperous countries of the world.
- Pt. Jawaharlal Nehru is addressing the people in the Cartoon.
- The people sitting in the Cartoon are starved people who symbolise the poverty of India.
- The Cartoon is highlighting the Third Five Year Plan. The main aim of this plan was to make balance between agriculture and industry for achieving take off position.
- To regulate the acquisition or development of weapons among countries,
- Yes, because it regulated the acquisition of nuclear weapons to protect world from large seat destruction.
- It did not abolish nuclear weapons rather it limited the number of countries that could have them.
A — Himachal Pradesh,
B — Arunachal Pradesh,
C — Punjab,
D — Chhattisgarh and
E — Rajasthan
The 1977 elections were evolved as a shock to everyone as Congress Party was defeated for the very first time and opposition party came into power:
- The opposition adopted the slogan ‘Save democracy’ against imposition of Emergency earlier.
- The opposition campaigned non-democratic character of rule which provided various excesses.
- The opposition party highlighted the preventive detention and press censorship to favour public opinion.
- Janata Party also ensured not to divide non-Congress votes.
- Middle section of north India was moving away from Congress for whom Janata Party became a platform.
- Hence, elections of 1977 emerged many other factors instead about Emergency only.
Yes, to some extent movements and protests in country strengthen democracy to have mixed reactions both for and against:
Arguments for :
- Anti-arrack movement, Chipko movement, NBA etc., rectified some problems to be seen as integral part of democratic politics.
- These movements ensured participation and representation from diverse groups to
reduce possibility of deep social conflicts in democracy. ‘
- These movements broadened the idea of participation in Indian democracy i.e., Anti¬arrack movement and Dalit Panthers.
Arguments against :
- Collective actions, rallies, strikes, disrupt the functioning of a democracy and create a delay in decision making.
- Routine functioning of democracy did not have enough space for the voices of these social groups.
- It is possible to ignore demand of these movements with the presentation to be represented by one section of society only.
- Political parties do not seem to be taking up issues of marginal social groups.
- The relationship between popular movements and political parties has grown weaker over the years creating a vacuum in politics.
Hence, we may conclude that movements are not only about collective assertions or rallies or protest, but they also involve a gradual process of coming together of people with similar problems, demand and expectations.
Emergence of bipolar world :
- Two superpowers expanded their own spheres of influence in different parts of the world.
- It divided the world into two alliances namely Western and Eastern alliance headed by the US and Soviet Union respectively.
- The smaller states in alliances got the promise of protection of weapons and economic aid against their local rivals, hence they remained tied to its protective superpowers to limit influence of other superpower and its allies.
Arenas of Cold War :
- Crisis and war occurred between alliance systems but did not cross certain limits.
- Many lives were lost in Korea, Vietnam and Afghanistan, but world was spared from nuclear war and global hostilities.
- The Cold War led to several shooting wars but it did not lead to another World War despite direct confrontations in Korea (1950-53), Berlin (1958-62) and the Congo (the early 1960s).
1. In Russia :
- Chechnya and Dagestan had violent secessionist movements.
- Moscow’s method to deal with Chechen rebels and indiscriminate military bombings led to many human rights violation but for deter aspirations for independence.
2. In Central Asia:
- Tajikistan witnessed a civil war that went on for ten years till 2001.
- In Azerbaijan’s provinces of Nagorno-Karobakh, some local Armenians want to secede and join Armenia.
- In Georgia, the demand for independence came from two provinces resulting in a civil war.
- There are still movements against the existing regimes in Ukraine, Kyrgyzstan and Georgia. .
- Even countries and provinces are fighting over river water.
3. In Eastern Europe :
- Czechoslovakia split peacefully into two with the Czechs and Slovaks, forming independent countries.
- The severe conflict took place in the Balkan republics of Yugoslavia.
- After 1991, Yugoslavia broke apart with several provinces like Croatia, Slovania, Bosnia and Herzegovina declaring independence.
- Ethnic Serbs opposed this and a massacre of non-Serbs Bosanians followed.
- The NATO intervention and the bombing of Yugoslavia followed inter-ethnic Civil war.
Inspite of all perfection, the Soviet system was full of loopholes.
- The system was bureaucratic and over-centralised making life difficult for people.
- It stifled the initiative of people due to lack of democracy and absence of freedom of speech and expression.
- Nearly all the Soviet institutions needed reforms but the strict one party control by the communist party made all the institutions unaccountable to the people.
- The Communist Party even refused to give freedom so people of 15 different republics of Soviet Union to retain and manage their own affairs including cultural affairs.
- Though Russian Federation was only one of the 15 Soviet republics, it dominated the helm of affairs, neglecting people from other regions and making them feel oppressed.
Soviet system becatne so weak and Soviet economy stagnant due to the following reasons:
- The Soviet economy used much of its resources in maintaining nuclear and military arsenals.
- Soviet economy concentrated on the development of its satellite states in Eastern Europe especially in the five central Asian republics.
- This led to a huge economic burden on people to be coped up with.
- Ordinary citizens became more knowledgeable about the economic advancement of the West and backwardness of Soviet system.
Compromise and accommodation are the two essential policies to Save Planet Earth by the states but the states from North and South have different notions towards environmental issues:
- The Northern States (Developed) are concerned with Ozone depletion and global warming whereas Southern States (Developing) want to address the relationship between economic development and environmental management.
- The developed countries of the North want to discuss the environmental issues which stands equally responsible for ecological conservation.
- The developing countries of the South feel that much of the ecological degradation in the world is created by developed countries through their industrial projects.
- And if developed countries cause more environmental degradation they are supposed to take more responsibility on wards.
- The developing countries are under process of industrialization .and they should be exempted from restrictions imposed on developed countries through various conventions like Kyoto Protocol etc.
- The special needs of developing countries must be taken into considerations in the process of development, application and interpretation of rules of International Environmental Law.
All the above mentioned provisions were accepted in Earth Summit, 1992 while adopting common but differentiated responsibilities.
The Swatantra Party was formed in August 1959 after the Nagpur resolution of the Congress which called for land ceiling, takeover of food grain trade by the state and adoption of cooperative farming. The party was led by old Congress leaders like C. Rajagopalachari, K.M. Munshi, N.G. Ranga and Minoo Masani. The party stood out from the other in terms of its position on economic issues.
The Swatantra Party wanted the government to be less and less involved in controlling the economy. It believed that prosperity could come only through individual freedom. It was critical of the development strategy of state intervention in the economy, centralised planning, nationalisation and the public sector. It instead favoured expansion of a free private sector.
The Swatantra Party was against land ceilings in agriculture, and opposed cooperative farming and state trading. It was also opposed to the progressive tax regime and demanded dismantling of the licensing regime. It was critical of the policy of non-alignment and maintaining friendly relations with the Soviet Union and advocated closer ties with the US.
The Swatantra Party gained strength in different parts of the country by way of merger with numerous regional parties and interests. It attracted the landlords and princes who wanted to protect their land and status that was being threatened by the land reforms legislation. The industrialists and business class who were against nationalisation and the licensing policies also supported the party. Its narrow social base and the lack of dedicated cadre of party members did not allow it to build a strong organisational network.
The First Five Year Plan was commenced in 1951 to be drafted by young economist K.N. il Roy with the emphasis on poverty alleviation. Jawaharlal Nehru, the first Prime Minister of India presented this to the Parliament of India. Its main thrusts were as follows:
- To invest in dams and irrigation to improve agricultural sector with the urgent j attention.
- Huge allocations were made for large scale projects like Bhakra-Nangal dam.
- It focused on land reforms for the development in rural areas.
- It aimed to increase level of national income.
The First Five Year plan differed from the Second Five Year plan:
- The Second Five Year Plan stressed on heavy industrialisation.
- It wanted to bring quick structural transformation in all possible directions in place of slow and steady growth like First live Year Plan.
India decided not to align itself to any of the military alliances. It declared its foreign policy as a policy of Non-alignment.
Non-aligned Movement (NAM) was formed in 1961. The founding members were Pt. Jawaharlal Nehru (India), Marshal Tito (Yugoslavia), Nasser (Egypt), Nkrumah (Ghana) and Sukarno (Indonesia).
The principles of NAM were formulated. Non-alignment does not mean that India will remain neutral and not take any position on major world problems. It simply means that India will not join any of the military alliances.
The Indian national movement was part of the worldwide struggle against colonialism and imperialism. It influenced the liberation movements of many Asian and African countries. Prior to India’s Independence, there were contacts between the nationalist leaders of India and those of other colonies, united as they were in their common struggle against colonialism and imperialism. The creation of the Indian National Army (INA) by Netaji Subhash Chandra Bose during the Second World War was the clearest manifestation of the linkages established between India and overseas Indians during the freedom struggle. The foreign policy of a nation reflects the interplay of domestic and external factors. Therefore, the noble ideals that inspired India’s struggle for freedom influenced the making of its foreign policy. But India’s attainment of independence coincided with the beginning of the Cold War era.
Globalisation has invited some strong criticisms also despite its positive impacts. Its critical arguments can be categorized as:
1. Economic :
- Reduction in subsidies on mass consumption goods to make foreign creditors powerful.
- It has grown disparity between the rich and the poor nations by making the rich more richer and the poor more poorer.
- Even states have also created the same disparities between developed and developing nations.
2. Political :
- Welfare functions of the state has been reduced.
- Sovereignty of states has been affected.
- States have become weak to take their own decisions.
3. Cultural :
- People lose their age old values and traditions.
- The world begins to look more like the dominant power over less powerful society.
- It leads to shrinking of rich cultural heritage of the entire globe.
- By the time of independence, the Congress was transferred into social coalition broadly representing India’s diversity in terms of classes and castes, religions and languages and various interests. Many of these groups merged than identify within the Congress,
- The Congress Party became a social and ideological coalition for it merged different social groups along with their identity holding different beliefs:
- The Congress was already a very well-organised party and by the time the other parties could even think of a strategy, the Congress had already began its campaign. In fact, many parties were formed only around independence or after that. Hence, the Congress had the first off the blocks advantage.
- In pre-independence days, many organisations and parties with their own constitutions and organisational structures were allowed to exist within the Congress.
- The Congress evolved as a pressure group in the beginning, but with the Civil Disobedience Movement, it launched to widened its social based and thus, it became a social coalition.
- The party provided enough space to all sections of people like peasants and industrialists, urban dwellers and villagers, owners and workers, upper, middle and lower classes.
- It also defined the area of leadership beyond the upper caste and upper class professionals to agriculture-based leaders with a rural orientation.
- Congress became a platform for numerous groups, interacts and even political parties to take part in the national movement.
Green Revolution was introduced in 1966 to bring about revolutionary changes in agriculture especially in foodgrains like wheat and rice to increase production through high yielding varieties of seeds, fertilisers and scientific irrigation—
- The government offered high yielding varieties of seeds, fertilizers, pesticides and better irrigation facilities at subsidised prices to farmers.
- The government fixed the prices also to purchase the produce of farmers at a given price.
Positive consequences or merits of the Green Revolution:
- In many parts, the stark contrast between the poor peasantry and the landlords produced conditions favourable for left wing organisations to organise the poor peasants.
- Also the government offered various irrigational facilities at a subsidised prices, and high-yielding varieties of seeds.
- It resulted in the rise the ‘Middle peasant sections’ who were farmers with medium size holdings. They benefitted from the changes and soon emerged politically influential in many parts of country.
Negative consequences or demerits of the Green Revolution:
- This created a stark contrast between the poor peasantry and the landlords.
- It delivered only a moderate agricultural growth i.e. a rise in rice and wheat production by raising availability of foodgrains in country.
- It increased polarisation between the classes and regions like Northern States i.e. Punjab, Haryana, West-UP become agriculturally rich but others remained backward.
We hope the CBSE Sample Papers for Class 12 Political Science Paper 7 help you. If you have any query regarding CBSE Sample Papers for Class 12 Political Science Paper 7, drop a comment below and we will get back to you at the earliest.