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Agriculture Class 10 Extra Questions Geography Chapter 4
QUESTIONS OF 1 MARK
Answers should not exceed 30 words.
What type of country is India -“Agricultural or industrial ? Why ? Give one reason.
India is an agricultural country because two-thirds of its population is engaged in agricultural activities. Agriculture is a primary activity, which produces most of the food for people.
What are agro-based industries ? Name any two.
- Agro-based industries are based on agricultural raw materials.
- The examples are cotton textile and jute.
What is other name of primitive subsistence farming ?
It is known as ‘slash and burn’ agriculture.
State any one feature of primitive subsistence agriculture.
Primitive subsistence agriculture is practiced on small patches of land with the help of primitive tools like hoe, dao and digging sticks and family/community labour.
What are the different names of ‘slash and bum’ agriculture in different countries ? Name any two.
- Mexico – Milpa
- Venzuela – Conuco
- Brazil – Roca
- Central Africa -Masole
- Indonesia – Ladang
- Vietnam – Ray
State any two names of primitive subsistence farming in India.
Bewar, Dahiya, Roman, Valre and Khil.
State any feature of Intensive Subsistence Farming.
It is labour intensive farming, where high doses of biochemical inputs and irrigation are used for obtaining higher production.
What is the main characteristic of commercial farming ?
Use of higher doses of modern inputs i.e., HYV seeds, chemical fertilisers, insecticides and pesticides in order to obtain higher productivity.
State any one example of a crop which may be commercial in one region and may provide subsistence in another region.
Rice is a commercial crop in Haryana and Punjab but in Orissa, it is a subsistence crop.
Mention any two plantation crops in India.
Tea, coffee and rubber.
What is a plantation crop ?
In plantation crop, a single crop is grown on a large area. Plantations cover large tracts of land, using capital intensive inputs, with the help of migrant labourers.
Mention India’s cropping seasons.
India has three cropping seasons e.g., rabi, kharif and zaid.
Which crops are grown in rabi season ?
Some important crops are wheat, barley, peas, gram and mustard.
In which states three crops of paddy are grown ? Which are they ?
- In states like Assam, West Bengal and Orissa three crops of paddy are grown.
- Three crops are Aus, Aman and Boro.
Which are important kharif crops ?
Important kharif crops are paddy, maize, jowar, bajra, tur, moong, urad, cotton, jute, groundnut and soyabean.
When does the zaid season fall ?
Zaid season falls in between the rabi and kharif seasons during summer months.
What is the position of rice production of India in the world ?
India is the second largest producer of rice in the world after China.
In the areas of less rainfall how does rice grow ?
In the areas of less rainfall i.e., less than 100 cm, rice grows with the help of irrigation.
What type of crop is wheat ?
It is a cereal crop. It is the main food crop in north and north-western part of India
Which are important wheat-growing zones in India ?
There are two important wheat growing zones in the country – the Ganga-Satluj plains in the north-west and black soil region of the Deccan.
Name important millets.
Important millets are jowar, bajra and ragi.
Which state is the largest producer of jowar ?
Maharashtra is the largest producer of jowar.
What type of soil is required for the growth of bajra ?
Bajra grows well on sandy soils and shallow black soil.
State one feature of ragi.
Ragi is a crop of dry regions and grows well on red, black, sandy, loamy and shallow black soils.
State one of features of maize.
- It is a crop which is used both as food and fodder.
- It is a kharif crop.
What is the position of India in the production of pulses in the world ?
India is the largest producer as well as the consumer of pulses in the world.
Give one feature of sugarcane.
- Sugarcane is a tropical as well as a subtropical crop.
- It grows well in hot and humid climate with a temperature of 21 °C to 27 °C and annual rainfall between 75 cm and 100 cm.
Where does India stand in the production of oil seeds ?
India is the largest producer of oil seeds in the world.
Which state is the largest producer of groundnut in India ?
Andhra Pradesh is the largest producer of groundnut in India.
Which crop is both a plantation crop as well as a beverage crop ?
Tea cultivation is a plantation agriculture. It is also an important beverage crop.
By whom tea was introduced in India ?
Tea was introduced in India initially by the British.
Which type of coffee is produced in India ?
The Arabica variety initially brought from Yemen is produced in India.
Where is coffee cultivated ?
Coffee cultivation is confined to the Nilgiri in Karnataka, Kerala and Tamil Nadu.
Which fruits of India are in great demand in the world market ? Name any two.
- Mangoes of Maharashtra, Andhra Pradesh, Uttar Pradesh and West Bengal.
- Bananas of Kerala, Mizoram, Maharashtra and Tamil Nadu.
Which are major fibre crops ?
Cotton, jute, hemp and natural silk are the four major fibre crops grown in India.
Which fibre is known as golden fibre ?
What strategies were adopted by the government to improve the Indian agriculture in the 1960s and 1970s ?
The Green Revolution based on the use of package technology and the White Revolution (Operation Flood) were initiated to improve the lot of Indian agriculture.
Name any two schemes introduced by the government of India for the benefit of the farmers.
- Kissan Credit Card.
- Personal Accident Insurance Scheme.
Who was declared by Mahatma Gandhi as his spiritual heir ?
Mahatma Gandhi declared Vinoba Bhave as his spiritual heir.
Who started Bhoodan ? What was its aim ?
- Vinoba Bhave.
- Its aim was to give land to landless villagers.
Why is the agriculture considered the backbone of Indian economy ? Give any one reason.
Agriculture is considered as the backbone of Indian economy because its share in providing employment and livelihood to the population was 63 per cent in 2001.
QUESTIONS OF 3/5 MARKS
Answers should he in about 80/100 words.
How is ‘slash and bum’ agriculture practiced ? What are its main features ? How is it known in different parts of the country ?
(1) The ‘slash and burn’ agriculture is practiced as mentioned below :
- Under this system, farmers clear a patch of land and produce cereals and other food crops to sustain their family.
- As the fertility of the soil decreases, the land is abandoned.
- The farmers move to new areas and clear a fresh patch of land for cultivation.
- It is known as ‘shifting agriculture’.
- The shifting of farmers to new area allows nature to replenish the fertility of the soil through natural processes.
- As farmers do not use fertilisers and high yielding variety of seeds, the land productivity is low.
(2) It is known in different parts of the country and the world as follows :
- Assam, Meghalaya, Mizoram and Nagaland -Jhumming
- Manipur – Pamlou _
- Bastar district of Chhattisgarh, Andaman and Nicobar Islands — Dipa
- Madhya Pradesh – Bewar or Dahiya
- Andhra Pradesh – Podu or Penda
- Orissa – Pama Dabi or Roman or Bringa
- Western Ghats – Kumari
- South-eastern Rajasthan — Valre or Walter
- Himalayan belt – Khil
- harkhand – Kuruwa.
Distinguish between primitive subsistence farming and intensive subsistence farming.
Primitive subsistence farming
- This type of farming is still practiced in few pockets of India.
- It is practiced on small patches of land, with the help of primitive tools like hoe, dao and digging sticks and family/ community labour.
- This type of farming depends upon monsoon.
- It depends on the natural fertility of the soil and suitability of other environmental conditions to the crops grown. The farmers do not use fertilisers or other modern inputs.
- There is no pressure on agricultural land.
Intensive subsistence farming
- This type of farming is practiced in areas of high population pressure on land.
- It is labour intensive farming, where high doses of bio-chemical inputs are used for obtaining higher production.
- Irrigation is used in this type of farming.
- It does not depend on the natural fertility of the soil instead bio-chemical inputs are used.
- There is enormous pressure on agricultural land because the farmers continue to take maximum output from the limited land in the absence of alternative source of livelihood.
What is the ‘right of inheritance’ ? What are its consequences ?
(1) Under the ‘right of inheritance’ the land is divided among successive generations.
(2) Its consequences are as mentioned below :
- Land-holding size becomes small and uneconomical.
- The farmers take maximum output from the limited land in the absence of alternative source of livelihood.
- There is enormous pressure on agricultural land.
What is commercial farming ? Describe its main features.
(1) In commercial farming crops are grown and animals are reared for sale in the market, that is for commercial purposes.
(2) Main features of commercial farming are as mentioned below :
- It is practiced on large patches of land.
- High yielding variety seeds, chemical fertiUsers, insecticides and pesticides are used to obtain higher productivity.
- Development of dense network of canal irrigation and tube wells have made possible to grow rice a commercial crop – in areas of less rainfall as Punjab and Haryana.
- Wheat, cotton, rice are grown on commercial basis.
- Plantation is also a type of commercial farming. In India tea, coffee, rubber, sugarcane, banana, etc. are plantation crops.
Why is subsistence agriculture still practiced in certain parts of the country ? Give reasons.
Subsistence agriculture is still practiced in certain parts of the country due to the reasons as mentioned below :
- Small pieces of land : In some parts of the country, the farmers have only small patches of land where they do farming with the help of primitive tools like hoe, dao and digging sticks, and family labour.
- Poverty : Small farmers are poor. They cannot use fertilisers and high yielding variety of seeds.
- Lack of irrigation facilities : In some parts irrigation facilities are not available to the farmers. The farming still depends upon monsoon. In such situation they can produce only what they need.
- Fertility of the soil: At places where the soil is not fertile, only subsistence agriculture can be practiced. Thus the farmers are compelled to produce to sustain their family.
Describe the features of plantation agriculture.
- Plantation is a type of commercial farming.
- It is known as bush or tree farming.
- It is a single crop farming because a single crop is grown on a large area.
- It is a capital intensive agriculture.
- The produce is used as raw material in respective industries.
- It needs good managerial ability, technical know-how, sophisticated machinery, fertilisers, irrigation, transport facilities and communication network.
- Tea, coffee, rubber, sugarcane, banana are important plantation crops.
- Some plantations like tea, coffee and rubber have a processing factory within the farm itself or close to it.
- Since the production is mainly for the market, a well-developed network of transport and communication is necessary to connect the plantation areas, processing industries and markets in the development of plantations.
- Tea is an important plantation crop in Assam and North Bengal while coffee is grown in Karnataka.
What are rabi crops ? In which period of the year are they sown and harvested in India ? [CBSE 2017]
- Rabi crops are wheat, barley, peas, gram and mustard.
- Rabi crops are sown in winter from October to December. These are harvested in
summer from April to June.
In which season are rabi crops grown in India ? What are necessary conditions for its growth ? ,
- Rabi crops are sown in winter from October to December.
- Crops are harvested in summer from April June.
(2) Necessary conditions for growth of these crops are as mentioned below :
- Availability of precipitation during winter months due to the western temperate cyclones help in the success of these crops.
- The success of the green revolution in Punjab, Haryana, western Uttar Pradesh and parts of Rajasthan has also been an important factor in the growth of rabi crops.
Which are important kharif crops ? When are these crops grown and where ?
- Paddy (rice), maize, jowar, bajra, tur, moong, urad, cotton, jute, groundnut and soyabean are important kharif crops.
- Kharif crops are grown with the onset of monsson and harvested in September October.
- These crops are grown in different parts of the country in 80 per cent of net sown area.
- Some of the important rice-growing regions are Assam, West Bengal, coastal regions of Orissa, Andhra Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, Kerala, Maharashtra, Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, Punjab and Haryana.
- At present, paddy has become an important crop of Punjab and Haryana.
- In states like Assam and West Bengal and Orissa, three crops of paddy are grown in a year. These are Aus, Aman and Boro.
What is the period of zaid season ? Which crops are grown in this season ?
- The period of the zaid season is in between the rabi and the kharif seasons.
- It is a very short season.
- Crops produced during zaid season are watermelon, cucumber, vegetables and fodder crops.
- Sugarcane takes almost a year to grow.
State the geographical conditions required for the cultivation of rice in India. Name the regions where rice is grown.
Geographical conditions for the cultivation of rice and regions where it is grown are given below :
- It is a Kharif crop.
- It requires high temperature (above 25 °C) and high humidity.
- It requires rainfall above 100 cm annually.
- In the areas of less rainfall, it grows with the help of irrigation.
- Rice is grown in the plains of north and north-eastern India, coastal areas and the deltaic regions.
- Development of dense network of canal irrigation and tube wells have made possible to grow rice in areas of less rainfall such as Haryana, Punjab and western UP and parts of Rajasthan.
Describe the geographical conditions required for the cultivation of wheat in India. Mention the regions where it is grown.
The geographical conditions for the cultivation of wheat and the regions where it is grown are given below :
- Wheat is a Rabi crop.
- It requires a cool growing season and a bright sunshine at the time of ripening.
- It requires 50 to 75 cm of annual rainfall.
- Rain must be evenly distributed over the growing season.
- Two important wheat growing zones in the country are the Ganga-Satluj plains in the north-west and black soil region of the Deccan..
- Major wheat producing states are Punjab, Haryana, UP, Bihar, Rajasthan and parts of Madhya Pradesh.
- It is the main food crop in north and north-western part of the country.
Give a brief description of millets grown in India with their climatic conditions and producing states.
- Millets grown in India are jowar, bajra and ragi.
- These are coarse grains but have great nutritional value e.g., ragi is very rich in iron, calcium, other micro-nutrients and roughage.
- Their climatic conditions and the states producing them are given below :
(1) Jowar :
- Jowar is a rain-fed crop mostly grown in the moist areas,
- It is the third most important food crop with respect to area and production,
- Maharashtra is the largest producer of jowar. It is also produced in Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh and Madhya Pradesh.
(2) Bajra :
- Bajra grows well on sandy soils and shallow black soil,
- Rajasthan is the largest producer of Bajra, followed by Uttar Pradesh, Maharashtra, Gujarat and Haryana.
- Ragi is grown in dry regions,
- It grows well on red, black, sandy, loamy and shallow black soils,
- Its largest producer is Karnataka followed by Tamil Nadu, Himachal Pradesh, Uttarakhand, Sikkim, Jharkhand and Arunachal Pradesh.
Mention any two geographical conditions required for the growth of maize crops in India. Describe any three factors which have contributed to increase the maize production. [CBSE 2016-17]
Give a brief description of the maize crop in India.
- Maize is used both as food and fodder.
- It is a kharif crop.
- It requires temperature between 21 °C to 27 °C.
- It grows well in old alluvial soil.
- In Bihar, it is also grown in rabi season also.
- Use of HYV (High Yielding Variety) seeds, fertilisers and irrigation have increased its production.
- The maize producing states are Karnataka, Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, Andhra Pradesh and Madhya Pradesh.
What is the importance of pulses in our economy ? Why are pulses grown as a rotation crop ?
- India is the largest producer as well as the consumer of pulses in the world.
- Pulses are the major source of protein in a vegetarian diet.
- Major pulses grown are tur (arhar), urad, moong, masur, peas and gram.
- Major pulses producing states are Madhya Pradesh, Uttar Pradesh, Rajasthan, Maharashtra and Karnataka.
- Pulses need less moisture and survive even in dry conditions. Thus, these are grown all over the country.
- Pulses are leguminous crops and therefore, help in restoring soil fertility by fixing nitrogen from the air. These are, therefore, grown in rotation with other crops. In view of the above the importance of pulses in Indian agriculture is significant.
Describe any four geographical conditions required for the growth of sugarcane. [CBSE 2016-17]
What are the uses of sugarcane ? What is Ipdia’s position in the world ?
Name any two sugarcane producing states of north India. [CBSE 2016-17]
(1) The following geographical conditions are required for the cultivation of sugarcane :
- It is a tropical as well as subtropical crop.
- It grows well in hot and humid climate with a temperature of 21 °C to 27 °C.
- It requires an annual rainfall between 75 cm and 100 cm. In areas of less rainfall, it requires irrigation.
- It can be grown on a variety of soils.
- It needs manual labour from sowing to harvesting and is a long duration crop.
(2) The major sugarcane producing states are Uttar Pradesh, Maharashtra, Karnataka, Tamil Nadu, Andhra Pradesh, Bihar, Punjab and Haryana.
(3) It is the main source of sugar, gur (jaggary), khandsari and molasses.
(4) India is the second largest producer of sugarcane only after Brazil.
Which are the oil-seeds produced in India ? What is India’s position in production of oil-seeds in the world ? What are the uses of oil-seeds ?
(1) Oil-seeds produced in India are groundnut, mustard, coconut, sesamum (til), soyabean, sunflower, castor seeds, cotton seeds and linseed.
- India is the largest producer of oil-seeds in the world.
- Oil seeds are grown covering approximately 12 per cent of the total cropped area of the country.
(3) Uses :
- Most of the oil-seeds are edible and used as cooking mediums.
- Some are used as raw material in the production of soap, cosmetics and ointments.
Distribute oil-seeds into Rabi and Kharif crops. Also mention their producing states.
- Groundnut is a kharif crop and accounts for about half of the major oil-seeds produced in the country.
- Andhra Pradesh is the largest producer of groundnut followed by Tamil Nadu, Karnataka, Gujarat and Maharashtra.
(2) Linseed and mustard are rabi crops.
(3) Sesamum is a kharif crop in north and rabi crop in south India.
(4) Castor seed is grown both as rabi and kharif crop.
Give a brief description of coffee production in India.
- India produces about four per cent of the total coffee produced in the world.
- The Arabica variety brought from Yemen is produced in our country.
- Indian coffee is known for its quality and, hence, is in much demand in the international market. It brings in a lot of foreign exchange.
- In the beginning, its cultivation was introduced on the Baba Budan Hills and is still confined to the Nilgiri in Karnataka, Kerala and Tamil Nadu.
Which are horticulture crops ? Where are they produced ? What is the position of India in the world regarding production of fruits and vegetables ?
(1) Horticulture crops consist of fruits and vegetables,
- India is the largest producer in the world.
- India is a producer of tropical as well as temperate fruits.
- It produces 13 per cent of world’s vegetables.
(2) The main fruits and vegetables produced in India are as given below :
Fruits : Mangoes, oranges, bananas, lichi, guaVa, pineapples, grapes, apples, pears, apricots and walnuts.
Vegetables : Pea, cauliflower, onion, cabbage, tomato, brinjal and potato.
2. Fruits are produced in the following states :
- Mangoes : Maharashtra, Andhra Pradesh, Uttar Pradesh and West Bengal.
- Oranges : Nagpur and Cherrapunjee (Meghalaya).
- Bananas : Kerala, Mizoram, Maharashtra and Tamil Nadu.
- Lichi and guava : Uttar Pradesh and Bihar.
- Pineapples: Meghalaya.
- Grapes : Andhra Pradesh and Maharashtra.
- Apples, pears, apricots and walnuts : Jammu and Kashmir and Himachal Pradesh. These are in great demand the world over.
Explain rubber cultivation in India under the following heads :
(B) Geographical conditions
(C) Any two rubber producing states.
Describe the climate required for the growth of rubber. Where is it grown and what are its uses ?
(1) Importance :
- Rubber is an important industrial raw material.
- It is consumed for making various things as mentioned below :
- Auto tyres and tubes – 44.5%
- Cycle tyres and tubes – 13.3%
- Footwear – 11.2%
- Camel back – 6.0%
- Belts and hoses – 5.1%
- Latex foam – 6.1%
- Others -13.8%
(2) Geographical conditions required for the growth of rubber are as given below :
- Rubber is an equatorial crop but it is also grown in tropical and sub-tropical areas.
- It requires moist and humid climate.
- It needs rainfall of more than 200 cm and temperature above 25 °C.
- It is grown in Kerala, Tamil Nadu, Karnataka, Andaman and Nicobar Islands and Garo hills of Meghalaya.
- India ranks fifth among the natural rubber producers in the world.
Name the four fibre crops grown in India. Which one of them is not obtained directly from the crops ? What is the name given to the process involved in its production ? What is sericulture ?
- Four fibre crops grown in India are cotton, jute, hemp and natural silk.
- The first three i.e., cotton, jute and hemp are derived from the crops grown in the soil. Natural silk is obtained from the cocoons of the silkworms fed of green leaves specially mulberry.
- Sericulture : Rearing of silk worms for the production of silk fiber is known as sericulture.
Describe geographical conditions for the growth of cotton. What are the uses of cotton ? Which are cotton producing states ? What is the position of India in cotton production in the world ?
(1) Geographical conditions for the growth-qf cotton are as mentioned below :
- It requires high temperature.
- It requires light rainfall or irrigation.
- It needs 210 frost-free days and bright sunshine for its growth.
- It is a kharif crop and requires 6 to 8 months to mature.
- It requires a lot of cheap and efficient labour at the time of plucking of cotton balls.
- Cotton grows well in drier parts of black cotton soil of the Deccan Plateau.
(2) Uses of cotton : Cotton is one of the main raw materials for cotton textile industry.
- Major cotton producing states are Maharashtra, Gujarat, Madhya Pradesh, Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, Punjab, Haryana and Uttar Pradesh.
- India is believed to be the original home of the cotton plant. India is the second largest producer of cotton in the world.
Which crop is known as the golden fibre ? Explain any two geographical conditions essential for the cultivation of this crop. Mention any four uses of it.
- Jute is known as the ‘golden fibre’.
- Geographical conditions essential for the cultivation of jute are as mentioned below :
- Soil : It requires well-drained fertile soils in the flood plains where soils are renewed every year.
- Temperature : High temperature is needed during the time of growth.
- Jute producing states : West Bengal, Bihar, Assam, Orissa and Meghalaya.
- Uses of Jute : It is used in making gunny bags, mats, ropes, yarn, carpets and other artefact’s.
- However, due to its high cost it is loosing market to synthetic fibres and packing materials, particularly the nylon.
How did the partition of the country in 1947 affect the jute industry ?
- Jute is also known as the golden fibre,
- It grows well on well drained fertile soils in the flood plains where soils are renewed every year,
- Jute requires high temperature duare ring the time of its growth,
- With the partition of the country, in 1947 three-fourth of the jute producing area as mentioned above went to Bangladesh (erstwhile east Pakistan). As a result of it, only one-fourth area was left in India. Although the mills were in India but jute industry was affected due to lack of raw material producing area.
Explain any three steps for agricultural reforms taken by the Government of India, after the independence.
Describe any five technological and institutional reforms initiated to improve the standard of agricultural in India.
See Textbook Question 2(3).
Describe the main features of Bhoodan-Gramdan.
Main features of Bhoodan-Gramdan are as mentioned below :
- Mahatma Gandhi declared Vinoba Bhave as his spiritual heir.
- Vinoba Bhave was one of the votaries of Gandhi’s concept of gram swarajya,
- After Gandhi, he undertook padyatra to spread Gandhiji’s message in the country.
- During his padyatra in Andhra Pradesh, poor landless villagers demanded some land
for their economic well-being.
- He promised them to talk to the government but suddenly one Shri Ramchandra Reddy offered 80 acres of land to be distributed among 80 landless villagers.
- This was the beginning of ‘Bhoodan’.
- Thereafter, some zamindars owners of many villages offered to distribute some villages among the landless. Thus Bhoodan became Gramdan.
- It may be added that some land-owilfers chose to give some part of their land to the poor farmers due to the fear of land ceiling act.
- This Bhoodan-Gramdan movement is also known as Blood-less Revolution.
Why has the agriculture sector in India got a major set hack in sprite of increase in GDP growth rate ? Analyse the reasons.
- Agriculture has been the backbone of the Indian economy though its share in the Gross Domestic Product (GDP) has registered a declining trend from 1951 onwards.
- Its share in providing employment and livelihood to the population continues to be as high as 63 per cent in 2001.
- See the table given below :
From above table it is clear that though the GDP growth is increasing over the years, it is not generating sufficient employment opportunities.
Secondly the growth rate in agriculture is decelerating which is an alarming situation. The reasons for this state of affairs are as mentioned below :
- Indian farmers are facing a big challenge from international competition.
- The government is reducing public investment in agriculture sector particularly in irrigation, power, rural roads, market and mechanisation.
- Subsidy on fertilisers is decreased leading to increase in the cost of production.
- Reduction in import duties on agricultural products have proved harmful to agriculture.
- Farmers are withdrawing their investment from agriculture causing a downfall in the
employment in agriculture.
Describe the steps taken by the government to control the declining share of agriculture in the GDP.
The government took the following steps to improve the share of agriculture in the GDP :
- Efforts were made to modernise agriculture by establishment of Indian Council of Agricultural Research (ICAR), agricultural universities, veterinary services, animal breeding centers, horticulture development, research and development in the field of meteorology and weather forecast.
- Efforts were made for improving the rural infrastructure.
“Today Indian agriculture finds itself at the crossroads.” Explain and suggest steps that should be taken to improve the condition.
After 1990, the farmers in India have faced new challenges. For example in spite of being an important producer of rice, cotton, rubber, tea, coffee, jute and spices, our agricultural products are not able to compete with the developed countries because of the highly subsidised agriculture in those countries.
Thus to make agriculture successful, the steps should be taken as mentioned below :
- Organic farming should be enocouraged.
- Farmers should diversify their cropping pattern from cereals to high-value crops. This will increase incomes and reduce environmental degradation simultaneously because fruits, medicinal herbs, flowers, vegetables, biodiesel crops (jat ropha) need much less irrigation than rice or sugarcane.
- India’s diverse climate can be harnessed to grow a wide range of high value crops.
On an outline map of India show the rice and wheat producing areas.
(1) Rice producing areas are plains of north and north-eastern India, coastal areas and the deltaic regions. In Punjab, Haryana and western UP, it needs irrigation.
(2) Wheat producing areas are the Ganga-Satluj plains in the north-west and black soil region of the Deccan i.e., the states of Punjab, Haryana, Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, Rajasthan and parts of Madhya Pradesh.
See map given below :
Four features with serial number 1 to 4 are marked in the given political outline map of India. Identify these features with the help of the following information and write their correct names on the lines marked in the map.
1. A major wheat producing state. 9. A major rice producing state.
3. A minor rice producing state. 4. Largest producer of Jowar.
1. Punjab 2. Bihar 3. Haryana 4. Maharashtra.
See map given below :
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