NCERT Class 6 History Chapter 4 Notes In the Earliest Cities

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In the Earliest Cities Class 6 Notes Social Science History Chapter 4

CBSE Class 6 History Chapter 4 Notes Understanding The Lesson

1. In Punjab, about 150 years ago, when first-time railway lines were laid down, engineers stumbled upon the site of Harappa which is presently situated in Pakistan.

2. Harappa seemed like a mound and that was a rich source of ready-made high quality bricks. Archaeologists realized that this was one of the oldest cities in the subcontinent.

3. All similar buildings are described as Harappan cities, which developed about 4700 years ago. These Harappan cities were found in the Punjab and Sind in Pakistan, Gujarat, Rajasthan, Haryana and in Punjab (India).

4. Archaeologists found a set of unique objects in almost all these cities that is red pottery painted with designs in black, stone-weights, seals, special beads, copper tools and long stone-blades.

5. Many of these cities were divided into two or more parts. First, west part which was smaller but higher. Archaeologists described this as the ‘citadel’. Second, east part which was larger but lower.

6. Around each part of the cities, baked bricks were used. Bricks were so well-made that they have lasted for thousands of years. The bricks were laid in an interlocking pattern that made the walls strong.

7. In some cities, special buildings were constructed on the citadel, as in Mohenjodaro, a very special tank is found which is called the Great Bath. This Great Bath was lined with bricks, coated with plaster and made water-tight with a layer of natural tar. Stairs were used for bathing. Water in tank was probably brought in from well and water was drained out after use. Perhaps, important people took a dip in this tank on special occasions.

8. Apart from Harappa and Mohenjodaro, other cities were Kalibangan, Rakhi Garhi, Ganweriwala, Chanhudaro, Dholavira, Surkotada and Lothal etc.

9. Lothal and Kalibangan had altars, where sacrifices might have been performed.

10. Some cities like Mohenjodaro, Harappa and Lothal had elaborate storehouses.

11. Generally, houses were either one or two-storeyed high with rooms built around courtyard. Most houses had separate bathing area and some had wells to supply water and drains were covered. Houses, drains and streets were well-planned.

12. Harappan city was a very busy place. Probably, cities were planned by the rulers. Rulers sent the people to distant places to get metal, precious stones and other things that they wanted. Rulers kept the most valuable objects such as ornaments of gold and silver or beautiful beads for themselves.

13. There were people who knew the writing and helped to prepare the seals and likely wrote on other materials. These people are known as ‘scribes’.

14. In Harappan cities, the things which were found were made up of stone, shell and metal. The most precious metals were copper and bronze, gold and silver. Copper and bronze were used to make tools, weapons, vessels etc. Gold and silver were used to make ornaments and vessels etc.

15. In Harappan civilization, beads, weights and blades were also in use.

16. Harappan made seals on stone. These are generally rectangular and usually have an animal carved on them.

17. Harappans also made pots with beautiful black designs.

18. At Mehrgarh, cotton was probably grown about 7000 years ago.

19. Actual pieces of cloth were found attached to the lid of a silver vase and some copper objects at Mohenjodaro.

20. Archaeologists have also found spindle whorls made of terracotta and faience. These were used to spin thread.

21. Many of the things such as cutting stone or polishing beads or curving seals that were produced by the specialists, is proved from the objects found at sites. All the objects such as seals, terracotta toys, stone- weights, beads, stone-blades, embroidered cloth are the evidences of specialists that how sharply the things have been made.

22. The stone weights were shaped carefully and precisely. These were made of chert which is a kind of stone.

23. The stone-weights were probably used to weigh precious stone or metals.

24. Beads were made of carnelian a beautiful red stone. The stone was cut, shaped, polished and finally a hole was bored through the centre so that string could be passed through it.

25. Faience is a material that is artificially produced. A gum was used to shape sand or powdered quartz into an object. The object was then grazed with shiny and glassy surface. The colour of glaze was blue or sea green.

26. Faience was used to make beads, bangles, earrings and small vessels etc.

27. Spindle whorls was made of Terracota and Faience.

28. In Harappan Civilization, there were specialists of the work such as cutting stone or polishing beads or carving seals etc.

29. Raw materials are substances that are either found naturally or produced by farmers or herders.

30. At present, there are so many natural raw materials-wood, ores of metals, coal, gases etc.

31. At present, natural raw materials produced by farmers are-cotton, sugar cane, bamboo, tea-leave, soya bean, palm oil etc.

32. Some raw materials used by Harappans such as copper, tin, gold, silver and precious stones had to be brought from distant places.

33. The Harappans probably got copper from Rajasthan, bronze might have been brought from Afghanistan and iron, gold from Karnataka and precious stones from Gujarat, Iran and Afghanistan. (All places are stated as per present location)

34. In the Harappan cities, a plough was found, archaeologists believed that plough was used for turning the soil and planting the seeds.

35. The Harappans reared cattle-like, sheeps, goats and buffaloes. Water and pasture were available around settlement.

36. In the dry summer months, large herds of animals were probably taken to greater distances in search of grass and water.

37. Seals may have been used to stamp bags or packets containing goods that were sent from one place to another. If the sealing was intact, one could be sure that the goods had arrived safely.

38. Around 3900 years ago, Harappan Civilization suddenly seems to have ended up. People stopped living in many of the cities. Writing, seals and weights were no longer used. Raw materials brought from long distances became rare. In Mohenjodaro, we find that garbage piled up on the streets, the drainage system broke down.

39. There might be reasons behind the end up of Harappan Civilization. Some suggest that the rivers dried up; some suggest that there was deforestation; in some areas, there were floods. In any case, rulers lost control, the effects of the change are quite clear; the people moved into newer, smaller settlements etc. But none of these reasons can explain the end of all the cities. Flooding or a river drying up would have had an effect in only some areas.

40. New cities emerged about 1400 years later.

41. Around 5000 years ago, kings ruled over Egypt. They had armies and these were used to collect precious metals and stones. They also built huge tombs, known as pyramids. When king died, the bodies were preserved and buried in these pyramids. These carefully preserved bodies are known as ‘mummies’. A large number of objects were also buried with them.

In the Earliest Cities Class 6 CBSE Notes Important Terms

City: Harappa, Mohenjodaro, Kalibangan, Lothal, Chanhudaro etc., were the earliest cities that were built about 4700 years ago. The livelihood of these cities were dependent upon the grain production and rearing of animals. Whereas, literally cities are those that have modern amenities alongwith a certain population.

Citadel: Citadels are places from where protection of city or town took place.

Ruler: Kings and emperors are called rulers. In Harappan cities, rulers decided the work of people and they planned the construction of special buildings in the city. In contrast to present, they were not taking any tax from its population.

Scribe: People who knew how to write, who helped prepare the seals, and perhaps wrote on other materials.

Craftsperson: Artisans or handicrafts persons are called crafts persons.

Metal: Metals are those substances which are found naturally and metals are produced from its ore. Seal: Seal is a tool which is used for certification since very long, as it was also used in Harappan Civilization. If the sealing was intact, one could be sure that the goods arrived safely.

Specialist: An expert or trained person in a particular task is called specialist.

Raw material: Raw materials are substances that are either found naturally or produced by farmers or herders.

Plough: Plough is an instrument which used for digging and turning the earth.

Irrigation: Supply of water to the fields for growing grain from the soil.

Notes of History Class 6 Chapter 4 Time Period

7000 year ago: Cotton cultivation at Mehrgarh

4700 year ago: Beginning of cities

3900 years ago: Beginning of the end of these cities

2500 years ago: The emergence of other cities.