1 Mark Questions for History Class 12 Chapter 1 Bricks, Beads and Bones: The Harappan Civilisation

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One Mark Questions for History Class 12 Chapter 1 Bricks, Beads and Bones: The Harappan Civilisation

Question 1.
Bones of which animals were found at Harappan sites?
Cattle, sheep, goat, buffalo and pig.

Question 2.
At which sites the terracota models of the plough have been found?
At Cholistan and Banawali Haryana.

Question 3.
At which Harappan site, traces of canals have been found?
At Shortugai in Afghanistan.

Question 4.
Name two cities which were first to be found in Indus valley civilisation.
Harappa and Mohenjodaro.

Question 5.
Name few buildings found at Harappan sites.
The Great Bath, Lower Town, Granery etc.

Question 6.
On which pattern, the roads and streets were laid out in Harappan cities?
The roads and streets in Harappan cities were laid in the grid pattern, intersecting at right angles.

Question 7.
How many wells have found in Mohenjodaro?
Scholars have estimated that there were approximately 700 wells found in Mohenjodaro.

Question 8.
What was the Great Bath?
The Great Bath was a large rectangular tank in a courtyard surrounded by a carridor on all four sides.

Question 9.
How can you say that Harappan people believed in the afterlife?
Some graves contain pottery and ornaments which indicates that Harappan people believed in the afterlife.

Question 10.
Which material was used to make beads?
Carnelian, jasper, crystal, quartz, steatite, copper, bronze, gold, shell, faience, terracotta.

Question 11.
What was Lapis Lazuli?
Lapis Lazuli was a blue stone with very high value.

Question 12.
From where copper and gold was brought?
Copper from Khetri region of Rajasthan and gold from South India.

Question 13.
With which countries did Harappan people have trading contacts?
Oman, Mesopotamian civilisation, Bahrain, etc.

Question 14.
How many seals were found at Harappan sites?
Around 2000 but 375—400 were quite common.

Question 15.
When were Harappan sites abandoned?
Around 1800 BCE.

Question 16.
Name the first Director – General of ASI.
Alexander Cunningham.

Question 17.
Who discovered Harappa and Mohenjodaro?
Daya Ram Sahni and Rakhal Das Banerji respectively.

Question 18.
Who was R.E.M. wheeler?
He was the Dirctor-General of the ASI who took over in 1944.

Question 19.
Explain how different methods of irrigation were developed for agriculture in the Harappan sites. (C.B.S.E. 2017 (D))
Traces of canals have been found at the Harappan site of Shortugai in Afghanistan. Other means of irrigation were:
(i) Water drawn from the wells.
(ii) Water reserved in water reservoirs.

Question 20.
Which architectural features ; of Mohenjodaro indicate towards planning?
Mention two features of Harappan Cities. (C.B.S.E. 2011 ))
(i) Division of whole of the city into two towns.
(ii) Roads and streets laid out in a grid pattern.
(iii) Use of bricks of same size or standardised ratio.
(iv) Making of residential buildings with a definite plan.

Question 21.
What is Faience ? Why the little pots made by it were considered precious ?
Faience is a material made of ground sand or silica mixed with colour and a gum and then fired. The little pots of faience were probably considered precious because it was very difficult to make them.

Question 22.
The culture of which region has been named as Ganeshwar-Jodhpura culture by the archaeologists ? Enumerate two distinct characteristics of this culture.
The archaeologists have named the Khetri area of Rajasthan as the Ganeshwar-Jodhpura culture.
Two distinct haracteristics of this region were as follows :
(i) It had non-Harappan pottery.
(ii) It had great wealth of copper objects.

Question 23.
What sources indicate that land routes were important means of transport for Harappan people ?
Terracotta toy models of bullock carts indicate that land routes were important means of transport for Harappan people.

Question 24.
How can you say that Harappan people liked cleanliness ?
Following points indicate towards the Harappan people’s interest in cleanliness:
(i) There was a bathroom in almost every house.
(ii) There was proper arrangement of disposal of waste water.
(iii) Drainage system was covered and regular cleaning of drains was done.
(iv) People used to do some kind of a special ritual bath in the Great Bath.

Question 25.
On which objects, writing has been found from Harappan sites ?
Writing has been found on seals, rims of jars, copper tools, copper and terracotta tablets, bone rods, jewellery and even on ancient signboard.

Question 26.
How can we say that whole of Harappan society was a single state ?
On the basis of thinking and implementation of complex decisions we can say that whole of the Harappan society was a single state.

Question 27.
What causes were responsible for the decline of the Harappan civilisation ?
(i) Change of climate.
(ii) Cutting of forests or deforestation.
(iii) Excessive floods.
(iv) The shifting of path or drying up of rivers.
(v) Over-use of the landscape.

Question 28.
Who was John Marshall ?
John Marshall was the Director General of the Archaeological Survey of India (ASI). He was the first professional archaeologist who brought his experience of working in Crete and Greece. In 1924, he announced the discovery of new civilisation in Indus Valley.

Question 29.
What were the problems of piecing together to know about Harappan life ?
(i) Harappan script is undeciphered till today due to which we are still unable to attain information about ancient civilisation.
(ii) Materials like cloth, leather, wood and reeds decomposed due to the passage of time.

Question 30.
Which evidences give us information about Harappan civilisation ?
Only materials and physical evidences give us information about Harappan civilisation and these are:
(i) Remains of cities and towns.
(ii) Beads, querns, stone blades and pots.
(iii) Burials and bones of animals.
(iv) Seals and weights.

Question 31.
What are Shamans ?
Shamans are those men and women who claim that they have magical and healing power and have an ability to communicate with the other world.

Question 32.
Mention the two sections of the Harappan settlements and give one main feature of each. (C.B.S.E. 2011 (D))
Harappan settlements were divided in two sections. First section of this city was small and was built on higher place. The second section was the lower town. The archaeologists designated the first section as the citadel and the second section as lower town.

Question 33.
Give two features of the Harappan settlements. (C.B.S.E. 2011 (D))
Two features of Harappan settlements are:
(i) There were generally large settlements with large and small buildings.
(ii) Well planned network of roads , and drainage systems was the key feature of their settlement.

Question 34.
Mention any four items found in the graves of the Harappan. (C.B.S.E. 2011 (O.D))
Jewellery of both men and women, an ornament consisting of three shell rings, a Jasper (a types of semi-precious stone), bead and hundreds of micro beads, copper mirrors, etc., were found in the graves.

Question 35.
Mention two’ strategies adopted to identify cthe social differences among the Harappans. (C.B.S.E 2011 (O.D.))
(i) Study of the structure-of burials and things found from these burials.
(ii) Artefacts are generally classified into useful and luxurious things.

Question 36.
How did the Harappans’ obtain red colour of carnelian ? (C.B.S.E. 2011 (O.D.))
Harappans obtained red colour of carnelian by firing the yellowish raw material and beads at various stages of production.

Question 37.
Who was Cunningham ? Mention any one account used by him to locate the early settlements of Harappa civilisation. (C.B.S.E. 2013 (O.D))
Who was Cunningham? Mention any one source he collected to understand the Harappa culture. (C.B.S.E. 2016 (O.D.))
Alexander Cunningham was the first Director General of Archaeological Survey of India. He used accounts of Chinese pilgrims who visited India between the 4th and 7th centuries C.E. to locate early settlements.

Question 38.
Mention any two difficulties faced by historians in deciphering the f. Indus script. (C.B.S.E. 2012 (O.D.))
(i) Harappan script is undeciphered till today due to which we are unable to get information about this civilisation.
(ii) Materials like cloth, leather, wood and reeds decomposed due to the passage of time.